The Endogenous release of Oxytocin occurs in response to stimuli and mechanical release. Milk ejection is stimulated by the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland. The oxytocin then binds to the myoepithelial cells to squeeze milk out of the alveoli and ducts in the mammary gland. This oxytocin release occurs when the cow anticipates milking. Cows learn to anticipate milking from different stimuli including audio, visual and tactile.
[...] The breed of the cattle also has an effect on the amount of fat in the residual milk. Jerseys have a higher concentration of fat in their normal milk than Holsteins. Logically, the residual milk of both these breeds would show the same trend. The release of oxytocin is related to milk leakage, which is the milk loss that occurs between milkings. Milk leakage occurs because of the increased intramammary pressure caused by the release of oxytocin. This oxytocin release can be caused by an injection or by stimulation to the cow. [...]
[...] The purpose of this study was ultimately to determine the consequences of milk leakage on both residual and normal milk. The milk was also analyzed for fat and protein content. Materials and Methods The methods for this experiment consisted of three phases: observation of milk letdown, collection of normal and residual milk, and analysis of milk composition. The experiment took place at the UC Davis Dairy research facility over a period of six days. The experiment took place on twenty lactating cows that were located in pen three. [...]
[...] "Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Oxytocin Release and Milk Ejection." Journal of Dairy Science 87 (2004): 1236-1244. Natzke, R.P., and L.H. Schultz. "Effect of Oxytocin Injections on Mastitis- Screening Tests and Milk Composition." Journal of Dairy Science 50 (1966): 43-46. Persson Waller, K., T. Westermark, T. Ekman, and K. Svennersten-Sjaunja. "Milk Leakage- an Increased Risk in Automatic Milking Systems." Journal of Dairy Science 86 (2003): 3488-3497. Sagi, R., R.C. Gorewit, and D.B. Wilson. "Roles of Exogenous Oxytocin in Eliciting Milk Ejection in Dairy Cows." Journal of Dairy Science 63 (1980): 2006-2011. [...]
[...] "The Effect of Removal of Residual Milk by Use of Oxytocin upon the Yield and Fat Content of Subsequent Milkings." Journal of Dairy Science (1952): 1121-1124. Anderson, R.R., G.A. Hindery, V. Parkash, and C.W. Turner. "Effectiveness of Subcutaneously Administered Oxytocin upon Removal of Residual Milk." Journal of Dairy Science 51 (1967): 601-605. Ballou, Linda U., Jeffrey L. Bleck, Gregory T. Bleck, and Robert D. Bremel. "The Effects of Daily Oxytocin Injections before and After Milking on Milk Production, Milk Plasmin, and Milk Composition." Journal of Dairy Science 76 (1993): 1544-1549. [...]
[...] The percent composition of these components were obtained for both the normal and residual milk samples and used for comparison. Results The percent fat content of foremilk (normal milk) and residual milk clearly differed. Residual milk was much higher in fat content (see table 1 and chart 1). The residual milk's fat content was over twice that of the foremilk. During the first day of sample collecting the foremilk's percent fat was and the residual milk's percent fat was During the second day of sampling the foremilk's percent fat was and the residual milk's was The percent protein of the foremilk and residual milk did not differ. [...]
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