A project is undertaken to meet specific needs and goals or problems. One most know what the problem is before it can be solved. The basis for a candidates system is recantation of need for improving an information system or a procedure. For example a supervisor may want to investigate the system flow in purchasing, or a bank president has been getting complaints about the long lines in the drive-in. This need leads to system that can solve the problem. It entails looking into the duplication of effort.
If the problem is serious enough, management my want to have an analyst look at a preliminary survey or an initial investigation to determine whether an alternative it is possible. Such an assignment implies a commitment, especially if the analyst is hired from the outside. In the larger environments, where formal procedures are the norm, the analyst's first task is to prepare a statement specifying the scope and the objective of the problems.
The idea for changes originates in the environment or from within the firm. Environment based ideas originate from the customers, vendors, government sources, and the like. For example, new unemployment compensation regulations may make it necessary to change the reporting procedure, format and contents of various reports as well as file structures. Customer complaints about the delivery of orders may prompt an investigation of the delivery schedule, the experience of truck drivers, or the volume of orders to be delivered. When investigated, each of these ideas may lead to a problem definition as a first step in the system life cycle process.
[...] An error existing in one module does not directly affect other modules Reuse of a module is possible because each module performs some well- defined and precise function and the interface of the module with other modules is simple and minimum complexity of the design is reduced because different modules can be understood in isolation, as modules are more or less independent of each other. DESIGN PRINCIPLES: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategies Modularity Abstraction TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP STRATEGIES A system consists of components, which have components of their own; indeed a system is a hierarchy of components. [...]
[...] Like cards, data on diskettes are stored in sequence and in batches. MICR translates the special fonts printed in magnetic ink on check into direct computer input. Mark-sensing readers automatically convert pencil marks in predetermined locations on a card to punched holes on the same card. Optical character recognition (OCR) readers are similar to MICR readers, except that they recognize pencil, ink, or characters by their configuration (shape) rather than their magnetic pattern. Optical bar code readers detect combination of marks that represent data. [...]
[...] Important items must be in a prominent location on the form. Use of instructions: The instructions that accompany a form should clearly show how it is used and handled Efficiency considerations: The form must be cost effective. This means eliminating unnecessary data and facilitating reading lines across the form Type of report: Forms design should also consider whether the content is executive summary, intermediate managerial information, or supporting-data. The user requirements for each type often determine the final form design. [...]
[...] The problem could be automating an existing manual system like manual purchasing goods system, or developing a new automated system based on user needs or a combination of both. For large systems, which have to perform a large number of tasks with multiple features, it is very important that the system requirements are very clearly understood by discussing with the potential users. This task involves several meetings between the client/user and the system developer. In order to minimize the communication gap, especially for large project, software requirement specifications are finalized between the client and system analyst. [...]
[...] Similarly, all output instructions, whether it is the output on a printer, magnetic tape, magnetic disk, terminal screen, or any out output device are indicated in the flowchart with an input/output symbol. Processing: A processing symbol is used in a flowchart to represent arithmetic and data movement instructions. Thus all arithmetic process of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing are shown by a processing symbol. The logical process of moving data from one location of the main memory to another is denoted by this symbol. [...]
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