Heavy metal ions in aqueous effluent stream is being treated by biosorption of metal ions upon various biosorbents. Use of Azolla filiculoides as an effective biosorbent has been studied to remove copper ions for a given volume of effluent with initial concentration of Ci to the desired final concentration of Cout. The objective functions are to select suitable biosorbent which has maximum biosorption capacity with optimal dosage and the contact time of biosorption. The parameters which affect the optimization are the kinetic constant (k), time of contact (t), initial effluent concentration (Ci), maximum capacity of biosorbent (qmax), and the configuration of contact system. Optimum stage removal efficiency is determined, to minimize the total time of treatment, minimizing the usage of biosorbent and maximizing the throughput in terms of environmental parameters subjected to conforming to pollution control norms, energy expenditure and maximum utilization of all available resources. Biosorption of copper ions upon A. filiculoides has been studied based on the use of material and energy balances and the concept of an ideal stage. In this system the energy balance equations play a negligible role and hence calculations are based on the material balance only.
[...] The overall efficiency can be predicted with the prior knowledge of the characteristics with the application of Dynamic Programming technique, by optimising individual stage efficiency. This approch can be extended to any combination of biosbent/ sorbate systems. LIST OF SYMBOLS η a a2 b bi C0 Ce Ct k1, k2, kN kf kt1 m Mi N n nf qe qmax V fractional removal efficiency correlation constants Langmuir parameter parametric constraints initial concentration, (kg/m3 ) equilibrium concentration, (kg/m3 ) Concentration at time (kg/m3 ) Kinetic constants, Freundlich parameter kt1 time dependent kinetic constant, mass of biomass, cost matrix maximum number of stages nth stage Freundlich index equilibrium uptake, maximum uptake capacity, Volume of effluent, REFFERENCES Y. [...]
[...] APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING Dynamic programming is a mathematical procedure designed primarily to improve the computational efficiency of solving select mathematical programming problems by decomposing them into smaller, and hence computationally simpler, sub-problems. This technique is reformulation, as well as analogous to divide and conquer method. Dynamic Programming usually takes one of the two approaches: Top-Down: The problem is broken into subproblems and these subproblems are solved. Bottom-Up: Subproblems are solved in order of complexity. The solutions of subproblems are used to build the solution of the more complex problems. [...]
[...] Application of Dynamic multi stage programming in biosorption studies have been demonstrated through the computation of overall efficiency along with individual stage efficiencies. Keywords: Biosorption, Freshwater Macro Algae, Stage Efficiency, Optimisation, Dynamic Programming I. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal ions in aqueous effluent stream is being treated by biosorption of metal ions upon various biosorbents. Use of Azolla filiculoides as an effective biosorbent has been studied to remove copper ions for a given volume of effluent with initial concentration of Ci to the desired final concentration of Cout. [...]
[...] Liu, S.-F. Yang, H. Xu, K.-H. Woon, Y.-M. Lin, and J.- H. Tay, “Biosorption kinetics of cadmium(II) on aerobic granular sludge,” Process Biochemistry, vol pp. E. Demirbas, M. Kobya, E. Senturk, and T. Ozkan, “Adsorption kinetics for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions on the activated carbons prepared from agricultural wastes,” Water SA, vol no pp. 533–540, Oct 2004 Z. Aksu, “Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of cadmium(II) biosorption by c. vulgaris in a batch system: Effect of temperature,” Separation [...]
[...] NUMBER OF STAGES AND ESTIMATION OF STAGE EFFICIENCY A. Counter current In this scheme the fresh solution enters from one end of the network and the biosorbents are moved sequentially from the other end as shown in figure 2. The network can be constructed with batteries of laboratory conical flask for research and development studies For this mode of operation and starting with the initial concentration of C0, the equilibrium concentration can be predicted, using Langmuir isotherm and uptake Draw a verticle line from Ce till it touches the isotherm line as shown in figure 3. [...]
using our reader.