Research into routing protocol development for mobile ad hoc networks has been a significant undertaking since the late 1990's. Secure routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks provide the necessary functionality for proper network operation. If the underlying routing protocol cannot be trusted to follow the protocol operations, additional trust layers cannot be obtained. For instance, authentication between nodes is meaningless without a trusted underlying route. Security analysis procedures to formally evaluate these developing protocols have been significantly lagging, resulting in unstructured security analysis approaches and numerous secure ad hoc routing protocols that can easily be broken. Evaluation techniques to analyze security properties in ad hoc routing protocols generally rely on manual, non- exhaustive approaches. Nonexhaustive analysis techniques may conclude a protocol is secure, while in reality the protocol may contain unapparent or subtle flaws.
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[...] Baker, "Mitigating routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking pp. 255-265. P. Michiardi and R. Molva, "CORE: a collaborative reputation mechanism to enforce node cooperation in mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. Communication and Multimedia Security 2002 Conference (CMS'2002) Secure data forwarding. Once routes are established via secure route discovery, two phased routing protocols continue to be vulnerable to attacks against the data forwarding phase. Malicious insiders, or complex attackers, are legitimate routing entities, since malicious insiders are fully trusted and hold certified cryptographic keys. [...]
[...] Ad Hoc Routing Routing is the process of finding a valid route between two nodes and subsequently utilizing the route for data communication. MANET routing faces considerably more challenges than fixed wired networks Challenges include securing broadcast wireless communication in an un-trusted environment and merely finding the route itself. Figure 1 illustrates the reliance on intermediate nodes to provide wireless MANET communication between the two gray nodes. guaranteed if at least one adversary-free path exists To improve efficiency in classical flooding based systems, gossip protocols and their variants optimize effort by reducing the number of nodes that retransmit a given packet. [...]
[...] Single-phased approaches embed data into the routing process, while the two-phased approach establishes a path before sending data. The single and two-phased classifications have distinctive security requirements, which are discussed in the following two sections Automated Security Analysis Mainstream evaluation approaches in the mobile ad hoc network routing community do not provide an automated or exhaustive security analysis capability. Security evaluation techniques to analyze ad hoc routing protocols generally rely or manually assisted approaches. No exhaustive analysis techniques may conclude a protocol is secure, while in reality the protocol may contain unapparent or subtle flaws. [...]
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