In this article the use of X-ray diffraction in non-destructive testing of materials and machine components is examined. The article contains twelve refeX-ray diffraction finds uses in many applications of science and technology, ranging from applications in the field of pharmacy for the examination of molecules to acoustic analysis and a very important field in engineering and technology called Non-Destructive Testing, (NDT), in which machine parts and mechanical components can be examined to see if there are any cracks or abnormal stresses present that can cause the part to fail when it is fitted and being used in an operating machine. The NDT examination is carried out without destroying the part by subjecting it to stresses, strains or by slicing it.
[...] [Bomsdorf 2003] In an XRD measurement, the wavelength λ is given by the radiation emitted from he X-ray tube (in laboratory experiments the most commonly used radiations are or Cr-Kα) This means that spacing d can be easily evaluated from measurements of the first order Bragg angles θ using Bragg's law with n = 1.[Technology of Materials 2003] Solid-state phase transformations can be characterized by X-ray diffraction methods Important property applications are concerned with the martensitic- austenitic solid transformations in steel and the - phase transformations in kovar. [...]
[...] X-ray diffraction in Non-Destructive Testing and some results When used for NDT as shown in the diagram below, (Fig X-ray radiation decays differently in various materials and discontinuities. [Pitkanen 2000] Fig 2. Use of X-ray techniques in examination of metal parts The changes are affected by density variation, composition variation, and thickness variation and from lack of material due to corrosion and cracks. In figure 1 the real time radioscopy equipment is shown and the part to be inspected lies between the source of the X-ray and the image intensifier. [...]
[...] Quantitative material inspection with coherent X-ray scattering Referenced: November Web site: http://www.ndt.net/article/wcndt00/papers/idn662/idn662.htm Frank H. Chung, Deane K. Smith. Marcel Dekker. Industrial Applications of ray Diffraction Referenced: November Web site: http://www.spectroscopynow.com/Spy/basehtml/SpyH/1,1181,8-5-3-0- 1-book_detail-0-95,00.html Frank Burgazy et al. Principles and Applications of X-ray Diffraction. AXS Gmbh. March Referenced: November Web site: http://www.sietronics.com.au/Articles/xrd_princ.htm M. P. Hentschell et al. Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, BAM-VIII.32, D-12200 Berlin. New developments in X-ray Topography of advanced non-metallic materials Referenced: November Web site: http://www.ndt.net Technology of [...]
[...] Photograph of the portable X-ray equipment discussed Conclusion In this write-up, the nature and applications of X-ray diffraction techniques for non-destructive examination of machine parts was examined along with a brief look at the construction of the equipment that is used for diffraction studies. X-ray diffraction techniques are not only suitable for examination of metallic components but they are also suitable for non- metallic substances such as the non destructive examination of gems which can yield valuable information about their fineness and value, applications in pharmacy for drug crystal studies, medicine and many other fields of human endeavor. [...]
[...] Diffraction pattern variation when using various detectors for measurement The schematic of the X-ray tube, which was used for the measurements and the portable equipment, is shown in figure 8 below. The tube has three metals on the anode material as shown in figure 8 Each metal is selected by the motor and gear arrangement to change the energy of the emitted X-rays and Cr and Ag are selected as the X-ray targets. The ray tube is operated at 50kV and 1mA. [...]
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