The important considerations in the present field of electronics and electronic technologies are automation, power consumption and cost effectiveness. Automation is intended to reduce the manpower with the help of intelligent systems. In this project, we are going to count the number of objectives by using the intelligent system called Object counter. In this we place a reflective sensor which will continuously emit IR rays. If any object passes though the sensor it will reflect the IR onto the photo diode which will be inbuilt in the sensor itself. The photo diode will convert the IR signals into electric signals and that out put will be fed to the one of the pin of microcontroller. In this micro controller we are using the Timer as a counter such that the counter will count the number of objects. The data counted by the counter i.e. number of objects passing will be displayed on the LCD display, which will be connected to one of the ports of the microcontroller. Here we are using LCD displays so that we can see the objects. In this project the main components used are Microcontrollers, IR sensors and LCD displays.
[...] You simply connect the positive lead of your unregulated DC power supply (anything from 9VDC to 24VDC) to the Input pin, connect the negative lead to the Common pin and then when you turn on the power, you get a 5 volt supply from the Output pin. Circuit features Brief description of operation: Gives out well regulated +5V output, output current capability of 100 mA Circuit protection: Built-in overheating protection shuts down output when regulator IC gets too hot Circuit complexity: Very simple and easy to build Circuit performance: Very stable +5V output voltage, reliable operation Availability of components: Easy to get, uses only very common basic components Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit, I have used this circuit successfully as part of many electronics projects Applications: Part of electronics devices, small laboratory power supply Power supply voltage: Unregulated DC 8-18V power supply Power supply current: Needed output current + 5 mA Component costs: Few dollars for the electronics components + the input transformer cost. [...]
[...] Since the color generated by LCD units is dependent on the source of illumination, there is a wide range of color choice. HARDWARE DIAGRAM: RS (Command / Data): This bit is to specify weather received byte is command or data. So that LCD can recognize the operation to be performed based on the bit status. RS = 0 Command RS = 1 Data RW (Read / Write):- RW bit is to specify weather controller wants READ from LCD or WRITE to LCD. [...]
[...] A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary (input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage. Figure: Electrical Transformer Turns ratio = Vp/VS = Np/NS Power Out= Power In VS X IS=VP X IP Vp = primary (input) voltage Np = number of turns on primary coil Ip = primary (input) current Full wave rectifier Full wave rectifier circuit is shown below. [...]
[...] Because every object (with the exception of a blackbody) emits an optimum amount of IR energy at a specific point along the IR band, each process may require unique sensor models with specific optics and detector types. For example, a sensor with a narrow spectral range center data 3.43 microns is optimized for measuring the surface temperature of polyethylene and related materials. A sensor set up for 5 microns is used to measure glass surfaces. A micron sensor is used for metals and foils. [...]
[...] HARDWARE COMPONENTS: Microcontroller LCD IRsensor Power supply MICRO CONTROLLER 89C51: Introduction A Micro controller consists of a powerful CPU tightly coupled with memory, various I/O interfaces such as serial port, parallel port timer or counter, interrupt controller, data acquisition interfaces-Analog to Digital converter, Digital to Analog converter, integrated on to a single silicon chip. If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM, ROM, EPROM and peripherals. But controller is provided all these facilities on a single chip. [...]
using our reader.