Undoubtedly, the brain is an essential organ of the human body. Without this vital organ, senses such sight, hearing, tasting, smelling and feeling cannot be put to use. The brain controls everything in the human body 1 and is considered a complex structure. It is a mass of nervous tissue assembled together, weighing three pounds with more than ten billion cells present in it. The brain is able to receive impulses from various structures of the body. The brain is given the function of examining the received impulses and making the necessary adjustments or movements for that particular event. The brain is termed as man's consciousness, memory, reasoning and intelligence. The idea that emotions are controlled by the heart is a misnomer. The emotions felt by humans are still controlled by the brain 2.
The human brain is synonymous to an electrical company wherein million of wires are needed to make the transfer of impulses smoothly and if one wire is not functioning accordingly, it will have an effect on the whole system. Similar with the brain, millions of nerves are present and function properly to guarantee smooth transmission of impulses. If a part of the brain has been affected or if a nerve was damaged along the process, it can affect the proper functioning of the brain.
[...] Despite the mapping of the functions of the human brain and its parts, understanding the whole process occurring inside the brain is still limited. There is no specific procedure that can keep track of the neural connections from the brain to its parts resulting to restricted surgical procedures. Diffusion-weighted MRI has been evaluated as regards its utility to track down the neural connections within the brain19. Different techniques have been tested to know what would be the most effective in mapping the brain and its functions. [...]
[...] Intraoperative use during craniotomy is cumbersome and unsubstantiated as a modifier of outcome. There is increasing hope that computerized analysis of TCD waveforms may provide useful data on intracranial pressure (ICP) and this could be useful during induction. Clearly, TCD can recognize entire barriers to blood flow. Still, there are more helpful information about the extent of ICP allowing estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure which is unavailable currently. New Procedures Stereotactic Biopsy/ Craniotomy Stereotaxis is the exact location of a definite circumscribed area within the brain, with nominal damage to the remainder of the organ, by repositioning a probe or electrode along coordinates from exact distances from certain external points or markerS of the skull creating smaller incision which increases the potential for decreased blood loss and speedy recovery for the patient. [...]
[...] Awake craniotomy in the management of lesions in eloquent cortex British Journal of Neurosurgery; Feb 1998; Todd MM, Warner DS, et al. A prospective, comparative trial of three anesthetics for craniotomy. Anesthesiology. 1993; 78: Ornstein Young, WL. et al. Desflurane and isoflurane have similar effects on cerebral blood flow in patients with intracranial mass lesions. Anesthesiol. 1993; 79: Berkowitz RA, Hoffman WE, Cunningham F. Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity in children during sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. [...]
[...] 107) “Cerebral gymnastics are not capable of improving the organization of the brain by increasing the number of cells . but it can be admitted as very probable that mental exercise leads to a greater development of the dendritic apparatus and of the system of axonal collaterals in the most utilized cerebral regions.” The role of the brain is important since it takes control of every aspect of our existence. The concept of the brain‘s chief role was verified by Plato and the Hippocratic physicians stated that the brain “comes joys, delights, laughter and sports, and sorrows, grief, despondency and lamentations. [...]
[...] Brain 1968; 91: Odergren Iwasaki Borg Forssberg H. Impaired sensory motor integration during grasping in writer's cramp. Brain 1996; 119: Eliasson AC, Gordon AM, Forssberg H. Basic co-ordination of manipulative forces of children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991; 33: Fawcett, Rosser E and Dunnett S. Brain Damage, Brain Repair. Oxford University Press Buchner Adams L. Kneeper Ruper Laborder Gilsbach JM, et al. Preoperative localization of the central sulcus by dipole source analysis of early somatosensory evoked potentials and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. [...]
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