Injuries and age lead to progressive declines in muscular strength and lean muscle mass. Evidence exists that age-related and injury related declines in muscular strength and lean mass (Feigenbaum & Pollock, 1999) can be impeded following mechanical stress on the body resulting in the form of resistance training. Recommendations made by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regarding the importance of resistance training (Kenney, 1995), has resulted in health professionals more frequently prescribing resistance training for adults as a component of overall wellness and fitness program. People with injuries are also prescribed resistance training, to return them to their pre-injury status (Kenny, 1995).
Resistance training is beneficial for people in all walks of life, from children to adults.
[...] The research has been conducted on injured joints, (Ambrose et al, 2003; Freiwald, 1993) which could skew the results, since injured joints have decreased proprioceptory response, and the initial proprioceptory training may result in tremendous strength gains. However, it can be concluded that in some instances training proprioceptory responses can increase strength gains. Hypothesis Therefore, training with vision impairment can lead to increased proprioceptory responses that may in turn lead to increased strength gains, as evidenced by some of the studies conducted on injured joints. [...]
[...] The Accuracy of Prediction Equations for Estimating 1-RM Performance in the bench press, Squat, and Deadlift. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.11 211- Lord, S.R. & Menz, H.B. (2000). Visual Contribution to Postural Stability in Older Adult. Gerontology 306- Kenney, W.L. (Ed). (1995). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (5th ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Mayhew, J.L., Ball, T.E., Arnold, M.d., & Bowen, J.C. (1995) Muscular endurance repetitions to predict bench strength in men of different training levels. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 108- Mittelstaedy, H. [...]
[...] (Pratt & Adams, 1996) A study was conducted on patients with ACL-injuries and strength training for rehabilitation of the patients. (Freiwald, 1993) The study concluded that strains that would not be harmful in normal conditions can now lead to excitation of the nocioceptors. In addition, with proprioceptive training, nocioceptors were activated. Due to the close functional connection of nocioceptors with mechano-sensitive organelles, the mechano-sensitive coordination of the entire trained extremity changes. (Freiwald, 1993) Over the long term, changes take place, manifested primarily by a change in primary status, which is described as a change in muscle tone, muscular stiffness and modified receptor threshold. [...]
[...] The first group will be the control group, where the subjects will be administered a strength training protocol that is considered conventional. The other group will be given the experiment treatment, where the members of that group will be administered the same strength training protocol, except they will be blind-folded when performing those exercises. The exercises and sets for the protocol performed by each group will be the following: Weeks days/week Bench press 3 sets X 10-12 repetitions Lat-pulldown 3 sets X 10-12 repetitions Dumbbell shoulder press 3 sets X 10-12 repetitions Tricep extensions 3 sets X 10-12 repetitions Bicep curls 3 sets X 10-12 repetitions Weeks days/week Bench press 3 sets X 8-10 repetitions Lat-pulldown 3 sets X 8-10 repetitions Dumbbell shoulder press 3 sets X 10-12 repetitions Tricep extensions 3 sets X 8-10 repetitions Bicep curls 3 sets X 8-10 repetitions Weeks days/week Bench press 3 sets X 6-8 repetitions Lat-pulldown 3 sets X 6-8 repetitions Dumbbell shoulder press 3 sets X 6-8 repetitions Tricep extensions 3 sets X 6-8 repetitions Bicep curls 3 sets X 6-8 repetitions After this eight-week resistance training regimen, the subjects will have their five 1-RM tested on the bench press again and a 1-RM bench press will be calculated and recorded. [...]
[...] The literature will surmise methods to collect one rep-max, recommended ways to increase strength, the effects of vision loss on proprioception and the effects of proprioceptive training on isokinetic strength. Resistance training can be beneficial for all adults including those who have injuries. However, when determining how much weight a person should use during exercise, a percentage of one rep max is used. (Mayhew, Ball, Arnold, & Bowen, 1995) Moreover, determining the 1-RM is a difficult and unsafe for untrained individuals. [...]
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