HIV human immunodeficiency virus, prevention, immunization, treatment, biological diagnosis, transmission, blood, sexual transmission, mother-to-child transmission, manifestations oh HIV, definition, immunosuppression syndrome, pandemic, lentivirus subgroup, HIV-1, HIV-2, prophylactic measures, Europe, West Africa, Asia, America, membrane manifestations, asymptomatic thrombocytopenia, anemia, vaccine, AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIDS or acquired immunosuppression syndrome, revealed in 1981, is the serious consequence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), responsible for a reduction in cellular immunity which is a source of opportunistic infections.
The improvement of immune functions under multi antiretroviral therapy has made it possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of these infections.
HIV infection is currently creating a pandemic, of which sexual transmission is the most frequent. In 2000, the number of people infected worldwide was estimated at 40 million.
[...] Screening tests are also carried out during organ and sperm donations. The sharing of injection equipment contaminated with blood among drug addicts as well as the use of non-sterilized equipment are also responsible for viral transmission. Mother-to-child transmission In the absence of prophylactic measures, the risk of transmission is 15% in Europe and 30-40% in Africa, mainly during the neonatal period (late pregnancy, childbirth), the risk being increased by the severity of the mother's illness, and reduced by the administration of zidovudine in mothers not previously treated and by the planned caesarean delivery. [...]
[...] The improvement of immune functions under multi antiretroviral therapy has made it possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of these infections. HIV infection is currently creating a pandemic, of which sexual transmission is the most frequent. In 2000, the number of people infected worldwide was estimated at 40 million. Definition of HIV Aids Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an RNA virus belonging to the lentivirus subgroup. Two types are currently known, the most common HIV-1 (Europe, America, Asia, Africa) and HIV-2 (West Africa). [...]
[...] With current treatments, the viral load becomes undetectable in 60 to 90% of cases, but note that there is not yet a specific vaccine to eradicate this disease. Conclusion At the end of our analysis, it should be remembered that AIDS or acquired immunosuppression syndrome, revealed in 1981, is the serious consequence of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus it is responsible for the reduction cellular immunity which is a source of opportunistic infections. To avoid it, it is necessary to respect and put into practice the measures that we have listed above because there is currently no cure for this so-called "incurable" disease. [...]
[...] Immunizations As far as possible, it is preferable to avoid any vaccination when the CD4 count is below 200/mm³ and/or when the viral load is high. Any immune stimulation, which may lead to a transient increase in plasma viral load. recommended vaccines: Tetanus (with booster every 10 years), Poliomyelitis (inactivated vaccine only, with booster every 10 years) possible vaccines: Diphtheria, Hepatitis A and Influenza, Meningococcus Typhoid fever, Yellow fever (in the absence of immunodeficiency. Treatment The treatment of HIV infection aims to reduce viral replication as much as possible. [...]
[...] In addition, transmission through breastfeeding being proven, this should be prohibited as far as possible. Biological diagnosis The immunoenzymatic method (ELISA) detects the presence of specific serum antibodies. The Western blot, highlights the antibodies directed against different proteins of the HIV, it is considered positive in the presence of at least one antibody directed against an internal viral protein (anti p24) and against an envelope protein (antigp41, anti gp120 or anti gp160). Manifestations of HIV Cutaneous or mucous membrane manifestations Mainly infections of fungal or viral origin, the appearance of which, without a known contributing factor, requires the search for an HIV infection: seborrheic dermatitis of the face, the scalp, more rarely the torso chronic or recurrent prurigo folliculitis shingles warts, condyloma, molluscum contagiosum oral or genital candidiasis hairy leukoplakia of the lateral edges of the tongue (due to Epstein Barr Virus) Hematological manifestations These are usually asymptomatic thrombocytopenia, anemia and leukopenia. [...]
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