Cervical cancer takes a pervasive yet insidious toll on the lives of women. Haitian women in particular are dramatically affected by death and disability induced by cervical cancer. Yet the characteristics and natural history of cervical cancer are not unknown, making the only mysterious aspect of cervical cancer its pronounced and debilitating occurrence among women both in Haiti and the world.
Cervical cancer occurs in the cell walls that line the cervix. As cells change, they can develop into precancerous cells, appearing as lesions. These cells may eventually become cancerous (about 50% of precancerous cells become cancerous) (11). The critical stages of cervical cell development exhibit no symptoms, and cancerous warts or lesions are usually flat and nearly invisible, making cervical cancer extremely undetectable unless tested for.
[...] Haiti has a 1:7 incidence-to- mortality rate, by far the lowest in the entire LAC region, which suffers over 471,000 DALYs lost to cervical cancer alone (11). Since cervical cancer has such a short time plan from diagnosis to death (especially when taking into account late case presentation), prevalence tends to be a difficult indicator to measure. Yet due to HPV's strong correlation to cervical cancer, the prevalence of HPV infection can be reflective of cervical cancer's potential prevalence of cervical cancer cases contain HPV DNA, in particular HPV- and 45. [...]
[...] “Risk factors of invasive cervical cancer in Mali.” International Journal of Epidemiology. International Epidemiology Association. Great Britain: 2002. Iss 31, pg 202-209. Burger, Robert A., et. al. “Single-visit program for cervical cancer prevention in a high-risk population.” Obstetrics and Gyneocology. University of California, Irvine: Oct 1995. Vol 86, No Part pg 491- 497. Camara, Geni NL, et. al. “Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the federal district of Brazil.” Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. [...]
[...] comparison of single and combined visual, cytologic, and virologic tests as screening strategies in a region at high risk of cervical cancer.” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. National Cancer Institute. Sep 2003. Vol 12, pg 815-823. Ferrera, Annabelle, et. al. “Co-factors related to the causal relationship between human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer in Honduras.” International Journal of Epidemiology. International Epidemiological Association. Great Britain: 2000. Iss 29, pg 817-825. Herrero, Rolando, et. al. “Design and methods of a population-based natural history study of cervical neoplasia in a rural province of Costa Rica: the Guanacaste Project.” Rev Panam Salud Publica/ Pan Am Journal of Public Health Vol No pg 362-375. [...]
[...] 0-5 pregnancies produced an OR of while 6-8 pregnancies produced an OR of 3.37 CI - 7.33 and more than 10 leading to an OR of 3.9 CI - 14.74 ) The risk relationship involving parity and cervical cancer was also found in the Honduras study, characterized in a similar dose-response affiliation. This example found that risk for cervical cancer increased by 13% for every additional pregnancy within their study population Jamaica as well considered parity in their study, associating 0-2 pregnancies with an OR of 3-4 pregnancies with an OR of and more than 5 pregnancies with an OR of 2.31 CI - 3.73 ) Finally a study conducted on cervical cancer cases among women in Costa Rica found their case population to be “highly parous,” with 42% of women suffering cervical cancer reporting five or more pregnancies All three studies found risk for cervical cancer to be associated with increased age, lower socioeconomic status, and educational level (as well as health resources available). [...]
[...] “Selective screening for cervical neoplasia: an approach for resource-poor settings.” International Journal of Epidemiology. International Epidemiology Association. Great Britain: 2000. Iss 29, pg 807-812. “Human papillomavirus and cancer.” National Cancer Institute. Dec Mar 2005.
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