Healthier mothers and babies ranks as one of the 10 great public health achievements in the United States between 1900 and 1999. At the beginning of the century, almost 1 in every 100 women giving birth in this country died of pregnancy-related complications, and nearly 1 of 10 infants died before age 1 year (Centers for Disease Control, 1999b). By the end of the 20th century, infant mortality had declined more than 90 percent to 7.2 per 1000 live births in 1997, and the maternal mortality rate declined almost 99 percent to 7.7 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1997.
[...] Late neonatal death refers to death after 7 days, but before 29 days. Stillbirth rate (fetal death rate). The number of stillborn infants per 1000 infants born, including live births and stillbirths. Neonatal mortality rate. The number of neonatal deaths per 1000 live births. Perinatal mortality rate. The number of stillbirths plus neonatal deaths per 1000 total births. Infant death. Includes all deaths of live-born infants from birth through 12 months of age. Infant mortality rate. The number of infant deaths per 1000 live births. [...]
[...] The purposeful interruption of an intrauterine pregnancy with the intention other than to produce a live-born infant, and which does not result in a live birth. This definition excludes retention of products of conception following fetal death. Direct maternal death. This includes death of the mother resulting from obstetrical complications of pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium, and from interventions, omissions, incorrect treatment, or a chain of events resulting from any of these factors. An example is maternal death from exsanguination from rupture of the uterus. [...]
[...] For example states stipulate that fetal deaths beginning at 20 weeks' gestation should be recorded, eight states report all products of conception as fetal deaths, and still others use birthweights of 350 g or 500 g or greater to identify fetal deaths. Definitions recommended by the National Center for Health Statistics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are as follows: Perinatal period. This includes all births weighing 500 g or more and ends at 28 completed days after birth. [...]
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