Medical studies

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374 results

17 Sep 2007

Vaginal Bleeding during Pregnancy

Essay - 28 pages - Medical studies

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy has many causes and ranges in severity from mild (with normal pregnancy outcome) to life threatening for both infant and mother. Bleeding can vary from scant to excessive, from brown to bright red, and can be painless or painful. Causes can be divided into...

17 Sep 2007

Vertigo

Essay - 32 pages - Medical studies

Sensation of movement when no movement is actually occurring. Results from peripheral or central causes or, in some instances, may be induced by medications or anxiety disorders. Patients who are elderly and have risk factors for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) are more likely to experience central...

30 Aug 2007

Pulmonary Hypertension

Essay - 23 pages - Medical studies

It occurs when the blood pressure abnormally raises in the arteries that take the blood from the heart to the lungs. This pressure is not the same one that is measured in the medical doctor's office. When the cause of this illness is pulmonary emphysema or an heart illness...

30 Aug 2007

Glacoma

Essay - 31 pages - Medical studies

Glaucoma is an alteration where the pressure of the liquid that fills the ocular globe abnormally increases, beyond the eye can tolerate. When this pressure, called intra-ocular tension, is bigger than the normal one, the risk of damages to the eyes increases. Glaucoma is caused...

29 Aug 2007

Diabetes

Essay - 30 pages - Medical studies

Illness provoked by the deficiency of production and/or action of insulin, that drives to acute symptoms and chronic complications. The disease involves the metabolism of glucose, fats and proteins and has serious consequences in either if it appears quickly as when it is installed...

28 Aug 2007

Uterine Myoma

Essay - 33 pages - Medical studies

When numerous large tumors (especially intraligamentary mommas) are found, total abdominal hysterectomy is indicated. If the ovaries are diseased or if their blood supply has been destroyed, oophorectomy is necessary; otherwise, the ovaries should be preserved. Ovaries generally are...

23 Aug 2007

Coma

Essay - 63 pages - Medical studies

Consciousness, the awareness of self and environment, requires both arousal and mental content; the anatomic substrate includes both reticular activating system and cerebral cortex. Coma is a state of unconsciousness that differs from syncope in being sustained and from sleep in being less easily...

31 Jul 2007

Management and Prognosis of Heart Failure

Essay - 121 pages - Medical studies

The cardinal manifestations of heart failure are (1) dyspnea and fatigue, which may limit exercise tolerance, and (2) fluid retention, which may lead to pulmonary and peripheral edema. Both abnormalities can impair the functional capacity and quality of life of affected individuals. In addition,...

31 Jul 2007

Glucocorticosteroids in Relation to Inflammatory Disease

Essay - 42 pages - Medical studies

For more than 50 years, glucocorticosteroids have been important agents in treating diseases characterized by inflammation and exaggerated immune responses. The pioneering work of Hench and colleagues in rheumatoid arthritis showed the possible potency of these agents in such pathologic states....

31 Jul 2007

Applications of Statistics in the Medical Area

Essay - 49 pages - Medical studies

The sound practice of medicine requires the ability to use scientific evidence that is based on data and is published in the peer-reviewed medical literature. In this literature, investigators publish their findings using descriptive statistics to summarize data and inferential statistics to test...

31 Jul 2007

Applications and Limitations of Diagnostic Imaging

Essay - 60 pages - Medical studies

The traditional evaluation of the patient includes the history and physical examination and a well-planned set of diagnostic tests, often including imaging. Dramatic advances in imaging not only supplement the physical examination, but also now may begin to substitute for part of it. ...

31 Jul 2007

Social and Economic Issues in Medicine

Essay - 38 pages - Medical studies

Medicine is practiced in a social, economic, and political context. It takes more than excellent medical care to improve the health of patients because many of the determinants of the health of individuals and populations lie outside traditional clinical activity. By contrast, 40% of...

31 Jul 2007

Physical Activity

Essay - 43 pages - Medical studies

Regular physical activity is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. In the 1980s and 1990s, a large body of epidemiologic and clinical evidence linked regular physical activity with a variety of health benefits. Although the strength of the data supporting these...

31 Jul 2007

Principles of Drug Therapy

Essay - 41 pages - Medical studies

It is generally appreciated that under different conditions a drug may produce diverse effects, ranging from none to a desirable effect or, in other cases, an undesirable, toxic effect. Physicians must learn how to individualize the drug dosage under different conditions to ensure effective and...

31 Jul 2007

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Aging - published : 31/07/2007

Essay - 37 pages - Medical studies

The process of aging produces important physiologic changes in the central nervous system, including neuroanatomic, neurotransmitter, and neurophysiologic changes. These processes result in age-related symptoms and manifestations for many older persons. These physiologic...

31 Jul 2007

Chronic Poisoning

Essay - 73 pages - Medical studies

The chemical environment was recognized as a threat to health early in history. Well-documented outbreaks of occupational mercury and lead "poisonings" had been recorded and preventive measures implemented by 200 BC. In the Middle Ages, arsenic poisoning was used...

31 Jul 2007

Drug Allergy

Essay - 43 pages - Medical studies

The designation drug allergy should be reserved for adverse drug reactions caused by immunologic mechanisms. Although drug allergies are responsible for only a few adverse drug effects, the possibility of such reactions is a daily concern of most physicians. Drug...

31 Jul 2007

Common Clinical Sequelae of Aging

Essay - 98 pages - Medical studies

Increased longevity throughout the world is influencing medical care dramatically as more older individuals develop or survive with various medical conditions. Although some elderly present typically with single-system disease, they often have presentations and responses to...

31 Jul 2007

The Evaluation and Follow-Up of a Heart Failure Patient

Essay - 28 pages - Medical studies

An extensive battery of laboratory tests is not required for most patients with heart failure. Routine testing should include a complete blood cell count (to detect anemia and systemic diseases with hematologic manifestations), measurement of renal function and electrolytes including magnesium...

31 Jul 2007

Evaluation of a Patient with Possible Heart Failure

Essay - 51 pages - Medical studies

The common symptoms of heart failure are well known but are frequently absent and variably specific for this condition. The symptoms generally reflect, but may be dissociated from, the hemodynamic derangements of elevated left-sided and right-sided pressures and impaired cardiac output or cardiac...

31 Jul 2007

Clinical Presentation of Heart Failure

Essay - 30 pages - Medical studies

Acute heart failure usually presents as shortness of breath, culminating, sometimes in a matter of minutes, with pulmonary edema. A more subacute presentation is of progressive dyspnea associated with systemic fluid retention over days to a few weeks. The precipitous form usually suggests...

31 Jul 2007

Heart Failure Syndrome

Essay - 36 pages - Medical studies

Chronic heart failure is a multifaceted syndrome with diverse presentations. The initial manifestations of hemodynamic dysfunction are a reduction in stroke volume and a rise in ventricular filling pressures, perhaps in the basal state but consistently under conditions of increased systemic...

31 Jul 2007

Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis

Essay - 42 pages - Medical studies

Heart failure is a heterogeneous syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac function is responsible for the inability of the heart to pump blood at an output sufficient to meet the requirements of metabolizing tissues or to do so only at abnormally elevated diastolic pressures or volumes....

31 Jul 2007

Principles of Electrophysiology

Essay - 57 pages - Medical studies

The function of the human heart requires rhythmic beatings occurring on the average 70 times a minute, 24 hours a day, for 80 or more years. The close to 3 billion contractions of the cardiac musculature that must occur without fail are coordinated by an intricate network of specialized...

31 Jul 2007

Catheterization and Angiography

Essay - 58 pages - Medical studies

A significant reduction in coronary flow reserve is present when the ratio of flow at rest to flow after vasodilation is less than 2 : 1. Measurement of the pressure gradient across a stenosis using a small wire transducer also can assess functional severity. Fractional flow reserve is the...

31 Jul 2007

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonace Imaging

Essay - 32 pages - Medical studies

More than any other imaging technique, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers the potential for dramatically changing current imaging strategies for the evaluation of patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. The combined attributes of superior image quality and flexibility...

20 Jul 2007

Gene Therapy

Essay - 85 pages - Medical studies

Gene therapy is an experimental form of treatment whereby sequences of nucleic acids (i.e., genes) are delivered to cells to change their biologic function. The concept initially arose as replacement therapy for monogenic inherited disorders. For these disorders, the aim is to replace a defective...

20 Jul 2007

Drug Abuse Of Cocaine and Other Psychostimulants

Essay - 29 pages - Medical studies

Cocaine, an alkaloid extracted from coca leaves, and other psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine) rapidly increase the concentration of several neurotransmitters in synaptic junctions and stimulate the sympathetic and central nervous systems. Topical cocaine is used in...

20 Jul 2007

Drug Abuse of Heroin and Other Opioids

Essay - 42 pages - Medical studies

Opioids, including naturally occurring alkaloids (opiates derived from the poppy plant Papaver somniferum), semisynthetic compounds (chemically altered alkaloids), and synthetic agents, are potent analgesics and produce an intense euphoria associated with nausea; drowsiness; miosis; and a...

20 Jul 2007

Electrocardiography

Essay - 57 pages - Medical studies

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a recording of the electrical potentials produced by cardiac tissue. Formation of electrical impulses occurs within the conduction system of the heart. When excited, or depolarized, atrial and ventricular myocardial muscle fibers contract. The electrical...

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