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26 Sep 2007
ppt

Assesment of Normal Pregnancy

Presentation - 48 pages - Medical studies

The diagnosis of pregnancy is usually made on the basis of a history of amenorrhea, an enlarging uterus, and a positive pregnancy test. Nausea and breast tenderness are also often present. It may be crucial to diagnose pregnancy before the first missed menstrual period to prevent exposure...

26 Sep 2007
ppt

Drugs, Cigarette Smoking & Alcohol During Pregnancy

Presentation - 26 pages - Medical studies

Teratogenicity has been established for only a few drugs, but many more are still not proved to be safe for use during pregnancy. The physician should have a good reason for prescribing any drug early in pregnancy, or indeed during the last half of the menstrual cycle, when any fertile, sexually...

26 Sep 2007
ppt

Prenatal Care

Presentation - 45 pages - Medical studies

Prenatal care as we know it today is a relatively new development in medicine. It originated in Boston in the first decade of this century. Before that time, the patient who thought she was pregnant may have visited a physician for confirmation but did not visit again until delivery was imminent....

26 Sep 2007
ppt

Normal Pregnancy

Presentation - 27 pages - Medical studies

Pregnancy (gestation) is the maternal condition of having a developing fetus in the body. The human conceptus from fertilization through the eighth week of pregnancy is termed an embryo; from the eighth week until delivery, it is a fetus. For obstetric purposes, the duration of pregnancy...

26 Sep 2007
ppt

Calculation of Gestational Age and Estimated Date of Confinement

Presentation - 26 pages - Medical studies

After the diagnosis of pregnancy is made, it is imperative to determine the duration of pregnancy and the estimated date of confinement (EDC). Normally, human pregnancy lasts 280 days or 40 weeks (9 calendar months or 10 lunar months) from the last normal menstrual period (LNMP). This may...

18 Sep 2007
ppt

Adenosis

Presentation - 22 pages - Medical studies

Adenosis is a term used to describe nonepithelialized columnar glandular epithelium in the vagina. At ~15th week of embryological development, the Mullerian system, which forms the upper 2/3 of the vagina, fuses with the invaginating cloaca, which forms the lower vagina. Squamous...

18 Sep 2007
ppt

Vaginismus (the inability of a woman to withstand penetration)

Presentation - 20 pages - Medical studies

Involuntary painful contraction of perineal muscles and levator ani prior to or during vaginal intercourse. The experience of or even the anticipation of pain on vaginal entry causes these muscles to contract, occluding the vaginal opening and causing further pain when penetration is attempted....

18 Sep 2007
ppt

Vitiligo

Presentation - 28 pages - Medical studies

An acquired, slowly progressive depigmenting condition in small or large areas of the skin due to the disappearance of previously active melanocytes Focal (including segmental) vitiligo: 1 to a few scattered macules, occasionally in a dermatomal distribution Generalized vitiligo:...

17 Sep 2007
ppt

Vaginal Bleeding during Pregnancy

Presentation - 28 pages - Medical studies

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy has many causes and ranges in severity from mild (with normal pregnancy outcome) to life threatening for both infant and mother. Bleeding can vary from scant to excessive, from brown to bright red, and can be painless or painful. Causes can be divided into...

17 Sep 2007
ppt

Vertigo

Presentation - 32 pages - Medical studies

Sensation of movement when no movement is actually occurring. Results from peripheral or central causes or, in some instances, may be induced by medications or anxiety disorders. Patients who are elderly and have risk factors for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) are more likely to experience central...

30 Aug 2007
ppt

Pulmonary Hypertension

Presentation - 23 pages - Medical studies

It occurs when the blood pressure abnormally raises in the arteries that take the blood from the heart to the lungs. This pressure is not the same one that is measured in the medical doctor's office. When the cause of this illness is pulmonary emphysema or an heart illness...

30 Aug 2007
ppt

Glacoma

Presentation - 31 pages - Medical studies

Glaucoma is an alteration where the pressure of the liquid that fills the ocular globe abnormally increases, beyond the eye can tolerate. When this pressure, called intra-ocular tension, is bigger than the normal one, the risk of damages to the eyes increases. Glaucoma is caused...

29 Aug 2007
ppt

Diabetes

Presentation - 30 pages - Medical studies

Illness provoked by the deficiency of production and/or action of insulin, that drives to acute symptoms and chronic complications. The disease involves the metabolism of glucose, fats and proteins and has serious consequences in either if it appears quickly as when it is installed...

28 Aug 2007
ppt

Uterine Myoma

Presentation - 33 pages - Medical studies

When numerous large tumors (especially intraligamentary mommas) are found, total abdominal hysterectomy is indicated. If the ovaries are diseased or if their blood supply has been destroyed, oophorectomy is necessary; otherwise, the ovaries should be preserved. Ovaries generally are...

23 Aug 2007
ppt

Coma

Presentation - 63 pages - Medical studies

Consciousness, the awareness of self and environment, requires both arousal and mental content; the anatomic substrate includes both reticular activating system and cerebral cortex. Coma is a state of unconsciousness that differs from syncope in being sustained and from sleep in being less easily...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Management and Prognosis of Heart Failure

Presentation - 121 pages - Medical studies

The cardinal manifestations of heart failure are (1) dyspnea and fatigue, which may limit exercise tolerance, and (2) fluid retention, which may lead to pulmonary and peripheral edema. Both abnormalities can impair the functional capacity and quality of life of affected individuals. In addition,...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Glucocorticosteroids in Relation to Inflammatory Disease

Presentation - 42 pages - Medical studies

For more than 50 years, glucocorticosteroids have been important agents in treating diseases characterized by inflammation and exaggerated immune responses. The pioneering work of Hench and colleagues in rheumatoid arthritis showed the possible potency of these agents in such pathologic states....

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Applications of Statistics in the Medical Area

Presentation - 49 pages - Medical studies

The sound practice of medicine requires the ability to use scientific evidence that is based on data and is published in the peer-reviewed medical literature. In this literature, investigators publish their findings using descriptive statistics to summarize data and inferential statistics to test...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Applications and Limitations of Diagnostic Imaging

Presentation - 60 pages - Medical studies

The traditional evaluation of the patient includes the history and physical examination and a well-planned set of diagnostic tests, often including imaging. Dramatic advances in imaging not only supplement the physical examination, but also now may begin to substitute for part of it. ...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Social and Economic Issues in Medicine

Presentation - 38 pages - Medical studies

Medicine is practiced in a social, economic, and political context. It takes more than excellent medical care to improve the health of patients because many of the determinants of the health of individuals and populations lie outside traditional clinical activity. By contrast, 40% of...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Physical Activity

Presentation - 43 pages - Medical studies

Regular physical activity is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. In the 1980s and 1990s, a large body of epidemiologic and clinical evidence linked regular physical activity with a variety of health benefits. Although the strength of the data supporting these...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Principles of Drug Therapy

Presentation - 41 pages - Medical studies

It is generally appreciated that under different conditions a drug may produce diverse effects, ranging from none to a desirable effect or, in other cases, an undesirable, toxic effect. Physicians must learn how to individualize the drug dosage under different conditions to ensure effective and...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Aging - published : 31/07/2007

Presentation - 37 pages - Medical studies

The process of aging produces important physiologic changes in the central nervous system, including neuroanatomic, neurotransmitter, and neurophysiologic changes. These processes result in age-related symptoms and manifestations for many older persons. These physiologic...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Chronic Poisoning

Presentation - 73 pages - Medical studies

The chemical environment was recognized as a threat to health early in history. Well-documented outbreaks of occupational mercury and lead "poisonings" had been recorded and preventive measures implemented by 200 BC. In the Middle Ages, arsenic poisoning was used...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Drug Allergy

Presentation - 43 pages - Medical studies

The designation drug allergy should be reserved for adverse drug reactions caused by immunologic mechanisms. Although drug allergies are responsible for only a few adverse drug effects, the possibility of such reactions is a daily concern of most physicians. Drug...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Common Clinical Sequelae of Aging

Presentation - 98 pages - Medical studies

Increased longevity throughout the world is influencing medical care dramatically as more older individuals develop or survive with various medical conditions. Although some elderly present typically with single-system disease, they often have presentations and responses to...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

The Evaluation and Follow-Up of a Heart Failure Patient

Presentation - 28 pages - Medical studies

An extensive battery of laboratory tests is not required for most patients with heart failure. Routine testing should include a complete blood cell count (to detect anemia and systemic diseases with hematologic manifestations), measurement of renal function and electrolytes including magnesium...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Evaluation of a Patient with Possible Heart Failure

Presentation - 51 pages - Medical studies

The common symptoms of heart failure are well known but are frequently absent and variably specific for this condition. The symptoms generally reflect, but may be dissociated from, the hemodynamic derangements of elevated left-sided and right-sided pressures and impaired cardiac output or cardiac...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Clinical Presentation of Heart Failure

Presentation - 30 pages - Medical studies

Acute heart failure usually presents as shortness of breath, culminating, sometimes in a matter of minutes, with pulmonary edema. A more subacute presentation is of progressive dyspnea associated with systemic fluid retention over days to a few weeks. The precipitous form usually suggests...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Heart Failure Syndrome

Presentation - 36 pages - Medical studies

Chronic heart failure is a multifaceted syndrome with diverse presentations. The initial manifestations of hemodynamic dysfunction are a reduction in stroke volume and a rise in ventricular filling pressures, perhaps in the basal state but consistently under conditions of increased systemic...