Pathophysiology, difficulty in breathing, Dyspnea, cardiac asthma, pulmonary congestion, Dyspnea on Exertion, DOE
Conventionally, the sensation of uncomfortable or difficulty in breathing experienced by John is normally referred to as Dyspnea. The Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) that John reports normally is considered an indication of disease because it occurred at a level of activity that he usually tolerates. In this regard, the two common cases of Dyspnea that John may have are treponema that occurs when one is in a certain lateral decubitus position contrary to another, and Platypnea which is associated with breathlessness occurring in the upright position and is generally relieved using recumbence (West, 2011).
[...] M. (2013). Establishing the diagnosis of lung cancer: diagnosis and management of lung cancer: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. CHEST Journal, 143(5_suppl), e142S- e165S.http:// /download_zhinan/%E6%8C%87%E5%8D%97/Establishi ng%2Bthe%2BDiagnosis%2Bof%2B%2BLung%2BCancer.pdf Rosto, E. (Ed.). (2009). Pathophysiology Made Incredibly Easy . Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Shah, N. R., & Braverman, E. R. (2012). Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index percent body fat, and leptin. [...]
[...] Bronchial Asthma According to Leigh and Marley (2013) the physical examinations and the pathophysiology eliminate the chance of respiratory infection or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Further, lung and pulmonary tests are necessary and determine the air moving out as John breathes. These tests may include spirometry or/and peak flow. The spirometry test checks the much air one can exhale after a deep breath and how fast they can breathe out to estimate the narrowing of bronchial tubes (Leigh & Marley, 2013). Peak flow determines how hard a patient breath out. References Al-Shura, A. (2014). Physical Examination in Cardiovascular Chinese Medicine. Burlington: Elsevier Science. [...]
[...] Secondly, the ECG is followed by a Holter monitoring that helps in detecting heart rhythm irregularities that are not easily recognizable by ECG examination. In addition, a cardiac catheterization will be necessary to measure the pressures in the heart chambers and see the flow of blood through the vessels, valves of the heart. Fourthly, a cardiac computerized tomography scan checks any heart problems by collecting different images of the heart and chest. Lastly, a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) needs to be performed on John. [...]
[...] Therefore, John's pressure of 115/65 mm Hg may be considered normal. The NHLBI, however, warns that the ranges for normal blood pressure should only be used as a guide (2015). In this regard, a single elevated blood pressure or low blood pressure should not be used as a proof of the existence or non- existence of a problem (Lazaro, Girbau and Villarino, 2010). Setting aside all this considerations and assuming John's pressure numbers as accurate, then his blood pressure is normal and does not indicate any illness. [...]
[...] Elsevier. Nhlbi.nih.gov,. (2015). What Is High Blood Pressure? - NHLBI, NIH. Retrieved 31 March 2015, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health- topics/topics/hbp Rabbetts, R. B. (2007). Bennett & Rabbetts' clinical visual optics. Elsevier/Butterworth Heinemann. Rivera, M. P., Mehta, A. C., & Wahidi, M. [...]
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