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31 Jul 2007
ppt

Applications and Limitations of Diagnostic Imaging

Presentation - 60 pages - Medical studies

The traditional evaluation of the patient includes the history and physical examination and a well-planned set of diagnostic tests, often including imaging. Dramatic advances in imaging not only supplement the physical examination, but also now may begin to substitute for part of it. ...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Social and Economic Issues in Medicine

Presentation - 38 pages - Medical studies

Medicine is practiced in a social, economic, and political context. It takes more than excellent medical care to improve the health of patients because many of the determinants of the health of individuals and populations lie outside traditional clinical activity. By contrast, 40% of...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Physical Activity

Presentation - 43 pages - Medical studies

Regular physical activity is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. In the 1980s and 1990s, a large body of epidemiologic and clinical evidence linked regular physical activity with a variety of health benefits. Although the strength of the data supporting these...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Principles of Drug Therapy

Presentation - 41 pages - Medical studies

It is generally appreciated that under different conditions a drug may produce diverse effects, ranging from none to a desirable effect or, in other cases, an undesirable, toxic effect. Physicians must learn how to individualize the drug dosage under different conditions to ensure effective and...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Aging - published : 31/07/2007

Presentation - 37 pages - Medical studies

The process of aging produces important physiologic changes in the central nervous system, including neuroanatomic, neurotransmitter, and neurophysiologic changes. These processes result in age-related symptoms and manifestations for many older persons. These physiologic...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Chronic Poisoning

Presentation - 73 pages - Medical studies

The chemical environment was recognized as a threat to health early in history. Well-documented outbreaks of occupational mercury and lead "poisonings" had been recorded and preventive measures implemented by 200 BC. In the Middle Ages, arsenic poisoning was used...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Drug Allergy

Presentation - 43 pages - Medical studies

The designation drug allergy should be reserved for adverse drug reactions caused by immunologic mechanisms. Although drug allergies are responsible for only a few adverse drug effects, the possibility of such reactions is a daily concern of most physicians. Drug...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Common Clinical Sequelae of Aging

Presentation - 98 pages - Medical studies

Increased longevity throughout the world is influencing medical care dramatically as more older individuals develop or survive with various medical conditions. Although some elderly present typically with single-system disease, they often have presentations and responses to...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

The Evaluation and Follow-Up of a Heart Failure Patient

Presentation - 28 pages - Medical studies

An extensive battery of laboratory tests is not required for most patients with heart failure. Routine testing should include a complete blood cell count (to detect anemia and systemic diseases with hematologic manifestations), measurement of renal function and electrolytes including magnesium...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Evaluation of a Patient with Possible Heart Failure

Presentation - 51 pages - Medical studies

The common symptoms of heart failure are well known but are frequently absent and variably specific for this condition. The symptoms generally reflect, but may be dissociated from, the hemodynamic derangements of elevated left-sided and right-sided pressures and impaired cardiac output or cardiac...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Clinical Presentation of Heart Failure

Presentation - 30 pages - Medical studies

Acute heart failure usually presents as shortness of breath, culminating, sometimes in a matter of minutes, with pulmonary edema. A more subacute presentation is of progressive dyspnea associated with systemic fluid retention over days to a few weeks. The precipitous form usually suggests...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Heart Failure Syndrome

Presentation - 36 pages - Medical studies

Chronic heart failure is a multifaceted syndrome with diverse presentations. The initial manifestations of hemodynamic dysfunction are a reduction in stroke volume and a rise in ventricular filling pressures, perhaps in the basal state but consistently under conditions of increased systemic...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis

Presentation - 42 pages - Medical studies

Heart failure is a heterogeneous syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac function is responsible for the inability of the heart to pump blood at an output sufficient to meet the requirements of metabolizing tissues or to do so only at abnormally elevated diastolic pressures or volumes....

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Principles of Electrophysiology

Presentation - 57 pages - Medical studies

The function of the human heart requires rhythmic beatings occurring on the average 70 times a minute, 24 hours a day, for 80 or more years. The close to 3 billion contractions of the cardiac musculature that must occur without fail are coordinated by an intricate network of specialized...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Catheterization and Angiography

Presentation - 58 pages - Medical studies

A significant reduction in coronary flow reserve is present when the ratio of flow at rest to flow after vasodilation is less than 2 : 1. Measurement of the pressure gradient across a stenosis using a small wire transducer also can assess functional severity. Fractional flow reserve is the...

31 Jul 2007
ppt

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonace Imaging

Presentation - 32 pages - Medical studies

More than any other imaging technique, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers the potential for dramatically changing current imaging strategies for the evaluation of patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. The combined attributes of superior image quality and flexibility...

20 Jul 2007
ppt

Gene Therapy

Presentation - 85 pages - Medical studies

Gene therapy is an experimental form of treatment whereby sequences of nucleic acids (i.e., genes) are delivered to cells to change their biologic function. The concept initially arose as replacement therapy for monogenic inherited disorders. For these disorders, the aim is to replace a defective...

20 Jul 2007
ppt

Drug Abuse Of Cocaine and Other Psychostimulants

Presentation - 29 pages - Medical studies

Cocaine, an alkaloid extracted from coca leaves, and other psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine) rapidly increase the concentration of several neurotransmitters in synaptic junctions and stimulate the sympathetic and central nervous systems. Topical cocaine is used in...

20 Jul 2007
ppt

Drug Abuse of Heroin and Other Opioids

Presentation - 42 pages - Medical studies

Opioids, including naturally occurring alkaloids (opiates derived from the poppy plant Papaver somniferum), semisynthetic compounds (chemically altered alkaloids), and synthetic agents, are potent analgesics and produce an intense euphoria associated with nausea; drowsiness; miosis; and a...

20 Jul 2007
ppt

Electrocardiography

Presentation - 57 pages - Medical studies

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a recording of the electrical potentials produced by cardiac tissue. Formation of electrical impulses occurs within the conduction system of the heart. When excited, or depolarized, atrial and ventricular myocardial muscle fibers contract. The electrical...

20 Jul 2007
ppt

Radiology of the Heart

Presentation - 62 pages - Medical studies

The heart casts a homogeneous shadow on the chest film. No internal detail can be seen within its contours because the radiodensities of blood, myocardium, and other cardiac tissues are so similar that one cannot be distinguished from the others. Only two borders of the heart, where it contacts...

20 Jul 2007
ppt

Cardiac Function and Circulatory Control

Presentation - 90 pages - Medical studies

The heart is a muscular pump connected to the systemic and pulmonary vascular systems. Working together, the job of the heart and vasculature is to maintain adequate circulation of blood to the organs at rest and during periods of exercise. To understand perturbations that cause symptoms and...

20 Jul 2007
ppt

Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

Presentation - 44 pages - Medical studies

The techniques of nuclear cardiology permit the noninvasive imaging of myocardial perfusion under stress and resting conditions and of resting regional and global function using radionuclide imaging agents and gamma or positron cameras with associated computer processing. Myocardial...

19 Jul 2007
ppt

Epidemiology of Cardiovacular Disease

Presentation - 56 pages - Medical studies

The three major clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Atherosclerosis also can be found in other arterial beds, especially the renal arteries, where it causes about two thirds of...

19 Jul 2007
ppt

Principales of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Presentation - 46 pages - Medical studies

In their work, people can be exposed to dangerous chemicals, hazardous physical agents, emotional stress, and trauma. Any of these occupational exposures can cause disease—sometimes immediately and sometimes after an interval of years or decades. In addition, tens of millions of...

19 Jul 2007
ppt

Drug Abuse Treatment and Relapse Prevention

Presentation - 28 pages - Medical studies

Patients who use illicit drugs benefit from treatment if they recognize that their substance use is a problem. The transtheoretical model considers a patient on a continuum from precontemplation (denial) toward maintenance (abstinence/recovery). The clinical approach should be tailored to...

18 Jul 2007
ppt

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Presentation - 70 pages - Medical studies

Despite dramatic advances in medical science and evidence-based practice, many people turn to other healing approaches, some derived from ancient medical traditions and others from new-age concepts. Although extraordinarily diverse in their nature and purpose, these approaches...

18 Jul 2007
ppt

Tobacco and Health

Presentation - 64 pages - Medical studies

Currently, about 46 million individuals in the United States are cigarette smokers, including 26% of men and 22% of women. People who are less well educated and/or have unskilled occupations are more likely to smoke. Smoking is responsible for about 430,000 preventable U.S. deaths...

18 Jul 2007
ppt

Ionizing Radiation Injury

Presentation - 52 pages - Medical studies

Ionizing radiation occurs as electromagnetic waves of extremely short wavelength and as accelerated atomic particles (e.g., electrons, protons, neutrons, a-particles). The injuries caused by ionizing radiation include mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects and various...

18 Jul 2007
ppt

Inborn errors of metabolism

Presentation - 84 pages - Medical studies

Metabolism is a collective term for integrated biochemical processes of the intact organism, differentiated organ, cell, and subcellular organelle. Normal metabolism enables homeostasis for the organism by maintaining anabolic and catabolic flow of substrates to products. In the...