In chemistry and many other sciences, it is very important to visualize your data. In the world today, everything is visual: television, computers, and advertising ads and pictures. Because the whole world is so visually oriented, it is imperative to construct a visual out of the data you have. For this, we construct a graph. We see everything before us, and it is very easy to see the interaction between our subjects in any assortment needed. The convenience of graphs is unmatchable. For our purposes, there are two axes for the graphs. The x-axis is for the independent variable. The independent variable is something that is not dependent on any other variable in the experiment. Time and volume are the independent variables in this lab, thus their place is in the x-axis. The y-axis is where the dependent variable goes. In our case, the dependent variables are distance and mass. Both of these variables are capricious and change as a result of a change in the independent variable. As the points are plotted, we have to summarize the direction in which the points are going. We use a best-fit line to draw an average of what the points are showing us. This thread line is known as the slope.
[...] Make sure hair is placed black, jewelry is put away, and loose clothing is not present Pour 25 mL of water into a beaker Mass the 25 mL beaker with the water in it and record data Place 5 mL of water in the cylinder and mass it again with the water, record data Add 5 mL more of the water and mass the 10 mL volume with the graduated cylinder Proceed with the 5 mL increments until you have massed 25 mL of water Repeat steps 1-4 with ethanol and NaCl You must clean up your area when you are done. [...]
[...] The slope will be very important in that it will give us information on the burning rates of the candles and the densities of the liquids. The rate gives very accurate figures on how much length of the candle has been burned given any amount of time. The slope will show us the densities of the three liquids; this we will use as a basis for comparison between the liquids. Density is mass divided by volume. We now have to plot the points. [...]
[...] Pertaining to the liquid experiments, a steeper slope would mean that a liquid has more density. This means that there will be more mass per volume. Materials Equipment Chemicals Tools: 1. Knife 2. Triple beam balance 3. Beaker 4. 25-millilter graduated cylinder 5. Stop watch 6. Matches 7. Tin foil 8. Ruler 9. Small candle 10. Bigger candle Safety: 1. Apron 2. Goggles 1. Ethanol Alcohol 2. H2O 3. NaCl Procedure Liquids Lab 1. For safety purposes, you must use eye protection and an apron. [...]
[...] It was the type of candles that is used on birthday cakes. The wax of this smaller one was a little softer than that of the other one's. It was blue with a white spiral going around it. It wasn't solid everywhere. It had a pattern of depth all around it's length due to the spiral. The smaller candle finished burning to its last mark much quicker than the larger one. The last mark recorded on the smaller candle was at 9minutes and 25seconds while the larger candle reached its last mark at 70minutes and 55 seconds. [...]
[...] Calculations Mathematical Calculations: Equations for chemical reactions: Graphs: Data Tables: Candles: Distance Minutes for Big Candle (decimal) 0.5 12.67 1 25.2 1.5 37.02 2 45.08 2.5 53.58 3 62.11 Distance Minutes for Small Candle (decimal) 0.5 2.67 1 4.93 1.5 6.01 2 7.86 2.5 8.5 3 9.41 Distance Time for Big Candle (hh:mm:ss) 0.5 00:12:40 1 00:25:12 1.5 00:37:01 2 00:45:05 2.5 00:53:35 3 01:02:20 Distance Time for Small Candle 0.5 2:40 1 4:56 1.5 6:00 2 7:50 2.5 8:30 3 9:25 Liquids: Name of Volume of Mass of Grad Mass of Grad Cyl Mass of Liquid Liquid Cyl Liquid Liquid Conclusions: As we visualize our data through the graphs, we see that the slope of the smaller candle is much steeper than that of the bigger candle. [...]
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