Communication is the key to the existence of mankind. In the field of telecommunication, the horizons are constantly expanding. In this regard, the optical fiber is a wonder tool in the field of telecommunication.
We are aware of the fact that light has a tendency to spread in a straight line, so to carry information from one point to another is not practical. Fiber optics, however, helps to solve this problem and is widely deployed in a wide range of applications. The origin of fiber optics dates back to the Greeks who used it on glass cylinders for driving light waves. As light has a tendency to travel in a straight line, the use of fiber optics is employed to allow the flow of information. However, due to the lack of proper records, we are not able to understand its significance.
[...] Light is then reflected in the fiber and can thus is spread over long distances by being reflected thousands of times. To avoid loss at the heart of the optical fiber, there is a sheath of glass refractive index. The reflections occur at the heart-sheath interface. Transmission In a telephone conversation, the voice is translated into an electrical signal. This signal is transmitted to the receiver by a copper cable. The electrical signal is then decoded to reproduce the original message. [...]
[...] III / The different types of fiber Multimode fiber In this category, there are two types: The step index fiber This type of fiber is the simplest and is directly derived from traditional optical applications. The heart has a relatively large diameter compared to the wavelength of light. The optic sheath plays an active role in the spread of light and should not be confused with the protective coatings deposited on the fiber. The radius in this case is guided by total reflection at the interface core. [...]
[...] The single-mode fiber In this type, the diameter of the heart and the incidence angles are very small. The results are excellent, but given the small cross section of this fiber, only the laser light is usable here. This is also the most expensive mode of fiber. They have a lower signal loss and a higher bandwidth than multimode fibers. They are capable of transferring higher amounts of data due to low fiber dispersion. IV / Comparison between fiber optic and copper wire Fiber optic Copper Wire -Dielectric -Conductive in nature Zero-sensitivity to electromagnetic interference -Sensitive to electromagnetic interference Low-attenuation: 0.2 dB / km High-attenuation: 20 dB / km and over Large-separation between repeaters for long distance: 100 km Closer transponders 1 km -Flexible network and adapts easily to new technologies Low-weight and very small in size Network quickly-outdated Considerably heavy and bulky in size -Durability: more than 20 years Low-cost Degradation, rapid corrosion -Expensive Easy-maintenance -Requires high maintenance -Bandwidth: great amount of information can be transmitted simultaneously Bandwidth-limited: the amount of information transmitted is very limited V / Some applications of optical fiber Today, workstations are interconnected through networks using fiber optics. [...]
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