Sir Isaac Newton laid the foundation of modern physics in the late seventeenth century. He described in mathematical terms, the fall and the movement of the body and defined the three fundamental laws of universal gravity. He also developed the calculus, pioneered important work in optics, analyzed the aspects of light and invented the reflecting telescope. The study of body movement and forces necessary for their placement has fascinated thinkers since ancient times. Among the philosophers, Aristotle (384-322 BC) had written in his book that the meteors define the movements of the planets across the sky.
[...] Hooke boasted at a meeting of the Royal Society in January 1684, having identified and shown all possible laws of celestial mechanics, and the British architect Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) took him at his word and hired a bet, giving a reward to anyone who would formulate a comprehensive and convincing theory of celestial mechanics in the space of two months. Isaac Newton took up the challenge. In fact it was not until December that Christopher Wren told the members of the Royal Society that he was that Newton had given him a convincing Treaty, entitled De motu corporum (body movement). [...]
[...] At the age of fourteen, however, his mother was widowed again and he had to terminate his studies. He helped her on the farm but was forever absorbed in his mathematical thinking. He went back to school in 1660 and later joined the prestigious Trinity College, Cambridge. His talent was soon spotted by his math teacher, Isaac Barrow (1630-1677). A brilliant student, he graduated in 1665, shortly before the University closed its doors for two years because of a serious outbreak of plague. [...]
[...] In 1669 he succeeded his teacher Isaac Barrow and devoted himself to optics and development of the telescope, for which he applied his observations on the prisms and decomposition of light. The invention of the telescope The telescopes used lenses as an objective. The use of lens had the disadvantage of decomposing light into color components, thereby reducing the sharpness of observation and, surrounding stars and planets studied color fringes - a defect that was known as chromatic aberration. Newton felt that it was impossible to construct a lens that would not present this defect, and designed an ingenious idea of using a concave mirror to focus the light from stars, rather than a lens: as the rays do not penetrate the glass of a mirror (but are simply reflected). [...]
[...] He wrote in his publication in 1632 about this principle. The principles of Galileo formed the basis of sound reasoning for further studies that began to flourish throughout Europe in the late seventeenth century. Some forty years after the death of the great Italian, it was in England that a decisive progress was performed in the study of movement, from the pen of a young prodigy, Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton's life and works Isaac Newton's life (1642-1727) marked the era of a new beginning for modern science. [...]
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