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07 Aug 2018

Anatomy of the Russian disinformation campaign: understanding the complexity of a covert network as part of state policy and a military tool against Europe

Tutorials/exercises - 73 pages - Journalism

About two decades ago, it was impossible to imagine that foreign disinformation could actually affect the policy decision making or disturb social cohesion and solidarity in European countries. Back then, media outlets such as television, radio stations and newspapers enjoyed munificent funding...

20 Feb 2013

North Atlantic Pact (NATO)

Case study - 7 pages - Political science

April 4, 1949 witnessed the signing of the Treaty of the North Atlantic (or Atlantic Pact) thus marking the birth of the NATO military alliance between the United States, Canada and 10 European countries: France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Iceland, Denmark,...

26 Mar 2010

Closed door meeting of North Atlantic Council: NATO-Russia relations

Thesis - 3 pages - International relations

Vladimir Putin's Russia is no longer the towering superpower it had been twenty years ago, and its influence and military might are considerably less of a force in global politics. But, thanks to a huge and poorly maintained nuclear arms force, the growing instability in the Caucasus, Central...

29 Sep 2010

The role of NATO in Afghanistan

Essay - 11 pages - International relations

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been in Afghanistan since August 2003 to command the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), which was created on December 20, 2001, by Security Council Resolution 1386 of the United Nations, in accordance with the Bonn Agreement....

09 Jan 2009

Was the NATO bombardment of Serbia legitimate?

Thesis - 3 pages - Services marketing

After the disintegration of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Kosovar Albanians became targets of the Serb policy of "ethnic cleansing". UN requested both parties to the conflict to stop hostilities and to return to negotiations. However, peace negotiations between the Federal...

29 Aug 2006

Is NATO still relevant ?

Essay - 7 pages - International relations

General De Gaulle once said that all alliances are like roses: they wither and decay. NATO might be a counter-example or it might not. While during the Munich Conference, the US Deputy Secretary of Defense, Paul Wolfowitz, claimed “As an alliance we have never been stronger. We have...

04 Aug 2022

EU relations in the wake of the 21st century

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

Eastern and Western Europe were separated in the aftermath of the Second World War by their rapprochement with one of the two great victorious powers, the USSR and the United States. Rebuild = European countries reduced their military budgets and thus find themselves at a disadvantage in the face...

31 Jul 2022

Towards a European Defense?

Course material - 7 pages - International relations

The problem of a European defense system is not new: we remember the Brussels Treaty of 1948, which was a military alliance between GB, France and the Benelux countries, including a common European general staff which was stationed in Fontainebleau, until it was taken over by NATO in 1951,...

31 Jul 2022

The Interplay of National and European Considerations in the Foreign Policy of EU Members - France and Germany

Course material - 11 pages - Political science

Since the origins of the European project, Europe has depended on close Franco-German cooperation. As we have seen, all the big moves forward were possible because of the basic Franco-German agreement; the last major instance was Maastricht in 1992. The other countries had to follow. Of course,...

08 Aug 2022

The United States and the end of the Cold War (1989-1990)

Course material - 4 pages - Modern history

President George H. Bush was elected in November 1988. He had to steer the end of the Cold War, 1989-1990. His team was different from Reagan's, although he had been his vice-president: there were no neo-conservatives; the new Administration was more adept of Kissinger's prudent line....

01 Aug 2022

The United States and the World - Russia and China

Course material - 7 pages - Modern history

At the beginning of his first term, President Bush neglected Russia and considered China as the next major geopolitical adversary. At the same time, American analysts were quite confident that Washington would be able to manage the "Geostrategic Triad" between Washington, Moscow and Beijing to...

07 Apr 2023

To What Extent Have the United States and Europe Grown Closer or Further Apart After September 11?

Essay - 4 pages - International relations

September 11, 2001 appears to be a major turning point in the American management of foreign affairs. Europe, as a major partner and ally, is also impacted by this attack. The objective of our analysis will be to determine the consequences of these. Moreover, the exponential rise in power of...

31 Jul 2022

The Possible Geopolitical Consequences of Further Enlargements of the EU

Course material - 6 pages - Political science

The big enlargement of the EU in 2004 and the last one in 2007 to Bulgaria and Romania have been greeted with skepticism or even hostile reactions in large sectors of European public opinion. This situation, which probably contributed to the failure of the Constitutional Treaty in France and the...

04 Aug 2022

US Foreign Policy since 2001: President Bush's first term

Course material - 11 pages - Political science

The period since 2001 has been a highly active one for the US: they waged a war in Afghanistan, another in Iraq and they may be preparing another one against Iran. The official rational in Washington, at least initially, for that activity, under the motto of "the war against terror", was the...

08 Aug 2022

The United States and the World: A New World Order?

Course material - 7 pages - Political science

We remember George Bush's optimism in 1990: he had announced "A New World Order", resting on the promotion of liberal democracy and free enterprise everywhere, resting on the UN (at last again effective due to the end of the Cold War) and on American benevolent hegemony. One could have the...

01 Aug 2022

Towards a "Europe-puissance" or towards a free trade zone?

Course material - 8 pages - International relations

The development of the European Union, along the line of constant progress towards more integration, which more or less prevailed since 1950, appeared to stop suddenly in May 2005 with the French "No" to the so-called Constitutional Treaty. That problem has been solved, at least for now, with the...

31 Jul 2022

The Interplay of National and European Considerations in the Foreign Policy of EU Members - The Countries Other than France and Germany

Course material - 8 pages - Political science

France and Germany alone can no longer call the tune in the EU. They henceforth have to take much more into account the agenda of the other members. We shall see first that agenda, regrouping, of course, the different countries into larger groups along their affinities, and then the possible...

01 Aug 2022

The United States and the World: Bush's Second Term and Current Trends in the US Foreign Policy Establishment

Course material - 9 pages - Political life and election

After Bush's re-election in November 2004, there were some doubts about the kind of policy he would now follow, after the occupation of Iraq had revealed itself as a much more difficult undertaking than what the Administration had contemplated. Many felt at the time the President would vastly...

30 Jul 2022

Towards a European Confederation? From de Gaulle's Return to Power to the Milan European Summit (1958-1985)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

After the failure of the federal concept and the more prudent approach of the Rome Treaties, for about 30 years, the European Economic Community (EEC) seemed to develop more along the concept of a European Confederation, not a Federation, as envisioned by the Founding Fathers, Robert Schuman or...

01 Aug 2022

The United States and the World - Transnational problems today as seen from Washington

Course material - 12 pages - Political science

In the document issued in September 2002, "The National Security Strategy of the USA", two essential goals of US national policy were stressed: the defeat of "Global terrorism" and "to prevent our enemies from threatening us, our allies, and our friends with weapons of mass destruction". Those...

03 Aug 2022

The United States and the World: Globalization in Historical Perspective

Course material - 8 pages - Modern history

The concept of globalization is not new: in his Communist Manifesto, in 1848, Karl Marx underlined that the bourgeoisie needed constantly expanding markets. Some distinctions are important. Globalization happens, or at least is discussed, in the context of several different fields, in which it...

08 Aug 2022

The United States and the World: The Sources and Tools of American Foreign Policy

Course material - 8 pages - Modern history

There is undoubtedly an American exceptionalism: the US considers itself since the 18th century to be different from Europe. It has seen itself from the beginning as a universal model: the “American way of life” (linking most strongly liberal democracy and free enterprise, two notions...

30 Apr 2014

Operation "Althea" in Bosnia and Herzegovine: the European security and Defence policy (ESDP) coming of age?

Essay - 14 pages - International relations

The European Union (EU) is a newcomer in the business of peace support operations. Of course, its members have long been involved in almost any sort of non-Article 5 (NATO/WEU) mission in the past, and they still are today. But they have usually done so under other flags than the EU one....

15 Jan 2009

The classical realist and structural realist theories applied to the Kosovo crisis in 1998-1999

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

Kosovo is mostly known as a region in the former Yugoslavia where, in 1998 and 1999, there was growing violence between the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which sought independence from Serbia, and the Serbian army and police, which were randomly attacking the province of the indigenous Albanian...

15 Jan 2009

The liberal and neo-liberal theories applied to the Kosovo crisis in 1998-1999

Essay - 4 pages - International relations

Kosovo is mostly known as a region in the former Yugoslavia where, in 1998 and 1999, there was growing violence between the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which sought independence from Serbia, and the Serbian army and police, which were randomly attacking the province of the indigenous Albanian...

25 Sep 2009

Russia's security policy

Thesis - 6 pages - Political science

Russia's security policy is undeniably complex, a system of political, economic, and social networks that influence the identification of potential threats, and anticipates the steps necessary to strengthen the state's infrastructure. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has had the...

15 Jan 2009

Outline de Gaulle's vision of France's international role and discuss the ways in which his foreign policy sought to realise this vision

Essay - 13 pages - International relations

The immediate cause of Charles de Gaulle's resumption of power (1958-1969) was the Algerian War, which had brought France to the brink of civil war and destroyed the Fourth Republic. By ending the war, de Gaulle had the chance to resurrect his proposal, first elaborated at Bayeux in 1946, of a...

05 Oct 2012

Canadian policy at the crossroads: Protecting Canada's independence in the age of globalization

Case study - 8 pages - International relations

The foreign relations of Canada are by nature, very much centered upon its southern neighbor, the United States. This is true for both trade and foreign policy considerations. In addition, Canadian governments have also had active relations with many other nations. These relationships have...

16 Apr 2014

The economic, territorial, and cultural impact of the European Union on the Danish identity

Case study - 5 pages - European union

Created by the treaty of Rome in 1957, the European Union now has 25 member states. Over the years and decades, it has developed a wide range of policies with an emphasis on economic measures. The member states have had to adapt themselves to this new system of governance and to the presence of...

16 Jan 2009

Current Polish foreign policy towards Poland's eastern neighbour states: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine (October 2004 - February 2005)

Essay - 10 pages - International relations

Poland has always lied at the crossroads of Europe, as suggested by the title of one of Norman Davies' famous history books Heart of Europe. Intermediate between the West and the East; buffer state; ally or enemy of the main European powers, Poland was once a very powerful country whose territory...