Sustainable development has been extensively discussed in the past few years, and is still a great matter of concern nowadays. In fact, there is no single way to deal with this subject, except choosing a guideline of this workshop avoiding clichés. Its main objective is therefore to study the viability and the feasibility of sustainable development as a growth economic model. We may begin with a note about definitions. In this workshop, the term sustainable means that the practice, process, system or product so described allows people to meet their current needs without compromising future stocks of environmental capital, such as productive topsoil, clean air, fertile forests, abundant fish stocks or genetic diversity of both plants and animals. A veteran field biologist called sustainability 'taking care of capital and living off the interest'; but even within this interpretation the term can be defined widely or narrowly depending upon one's objectives and perspective. Against a background of an increasing depletion of oil, during the last quarter of this century, there has been an growing global concern for rethinking development, reexamining the traditional mode of development based on the logic of industrialism, reviving public interest in the uncertain future of the natural environment and nonrenewable resources, and reinforcing the focus on the question of sustainability. Due to increasing environmental challenges to widespread industrialization, there has been a considerable shift in developmental thinking toward a mode of development termed "sustainable" or enduring.
[...] A case study has shown that the young generation of business entrepreneurs feels more and more concerned by sustainable development issues. The entrepreneurial vision for the most part of the cases was to create something innovative that was inexistent. The concept of sustainability in their eyes offers a more demanding set of objectives as compared to simply ‘build a business that makes profits' Sustainable development: some economic approaches 1. Sustainable growth: liberal and neo-liberal approaches In general, neo-liberalism is an ideological position based on strong beliefs in the promotion of the general good by following the principles of free market and open competition, limited state intervention, individualistic self-interest, rational utility maximization, and comparative advantage in free trade (King, 1987; Toye, 1991). [...]
[...] To incorporate depletion costs in the decisions of producers and consumers in order to reverse the tendency to treat exhaustive resources as a “free and to pass these costs on to other parts of society, other countries or to future generations To move more fully towards the integration of social and environmental costs into economic activities, so that prices of oil for instance will appropriately reflect the relative scarcity, the total value and the cost of depletion of this resource and thus contribute towards the prevention from its exhaustion To include, wherever appropriate, the use of market principles in the framing of economic instruments and policies to pursue sustainable development. [...]
[...] In a nutshell, ecological economists are inclined to acknowledge that much of what is important in human well-being is not analyzable from a strictly economic point of view and suggests an interdisciplinary approach combining social and natural sciences as a means to address the challenges of the 21st century Hydrocarbons sustainable exploitation and the integration of technological innovation in the sustainable development In order to set up a sustainable development, it is necessary to ensure a supply of long-term energy, while protecting the environment at both local and global levels. [...]
[...] In this context, the intervention of non-governmental organisms seems to be relevant and necessary to promote sustainable development, especially in the non- renewable energies field. On the one hand, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played a major role in pushing for sustainable development at the international level. Campaigning groups have been key drivers of inter-governmental negotiations, ranging from the regulation of hazardous wastes to the promotion for the use of alternative resources of energy. In fact, in their campaigns, NGOs try to make the citizens aware of the risk of the exhaustion of non-renewable energies, such as oil in particular, and encourage them to respect future generations' needs for oil supply, by controlling and regulating their consumption and their improper use of this energy resource. [...]
[...] - Responsibility: Since it is in everyone's interest to preserve the environment and use it in a sustainable way, all countries have a responsibility to preserve and restore the environment and to achieve development, without harming their own environment or that of others. Consequently, all countries must take an active part and show solidarity in this cause. Furthermore, the concept of equity implies that the responsibilities of all involved may be different but is complementary, depending on the needs of each one, and may vary in proportion concerning the extent of damage to the environment and the abilities of each party to rectify it. [...]
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