The fruit juice processing industry is one of the world's major agro-based businesses. Orange juice is the dominant juice trade worldwide. Juice is a liquid naturally contained in vegetable or fruit tissue. Juice may be supplied in concentrate form. Generally, concentrates have a noticeably different taste than their comparable "fresh-squeezed" versions. Juice should not be confused with a squash, which is usually an artificial juice to be diluted with water. Common methods for preservation and processing of fruit juices include evaporation and spray drying.
Popular juices include apple, orange, lemon, cranberry, grapefruit, pineapple, tomato and grape. It has become increasingly popular to combine a variety of fruits into single juice drinks. One of the most popular examples is Carrot, Orange and Ginger. Prepackaged single fruit juices have lost market share to prepackaged fruit juice combination's. A number of new companies have had considerable success supplying prepackaged fruit juice combination's on the basis of this transition. Fruit juice consumption overall in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and the USA has increased in recent years, probably due to public perception of juices as a healthy natural nutrient source and increased public interest in health issues.
[...] The main disadvantages are that such juices are more expensive than processed juices, they have a shorter shelf life, a higher quality of fruit is required and safety is an important concern. Thermal processing The acid nature of most juices permit pasteurization, defined as the use of temperatures near 100ºC to effect destruction of spoilage organisms. Although spores conceivably can survive at a pH less than outgrowth is unlikely. In contrast, at a pH greater than spore heat resistance dictates a process temperature of greater than 115ºC for an extended time. [...]
[...] The preheater of the first effect is designed to provide adequate time-temperature profile for the inactivation of pectinesterase enzymes and microbiological stabilization for juices. The juice is heated at to 96°C in approximately 10 seconds. The products are then fed into the first stage. At each stage, the feed is flashed through the distribution cone, evaporated in the tube bundle. The liquid and vapor exit at the bottom of the tube bundle and are separated in the cyclone type liquid-vapor separator which is connected to the evaporator body. [...]
[...] Evaporator belongs to the class of the “Falling Film Evaporators” and is widely used particularly to concentrate cloudy and clear juices obtained from citrus, tropical and continental fruits which are known to be sensitive and easily spoiled when submitted to high temperature, even a short time. Concentration occurs by water evaporating in subsequent stages called “effects” or “effects” being used for the steam circuit, for the product run. The T.A.S.T.E. system can be generally described as a continuous, single pass, long vertical tube falling-film type, and multiple-effect stages, high vacuum no vapor recompression, high temperature short residence time evaporator. [...]
[...] However, this industry excludes retailers that produce fresh juice, such as juice bars that crush juice in the presence of the consumer. For many people, the "gold standard" of orange juice beverages is freshly hand-squeezed orange juice. Hand-squeezed orange juice has many properties which are desirable to the consumer. These properties include the color and hue of the juice, its foaming characteristics, and the appearance of floating, intact juice sacs. In addition, hand-squeezed orange juice has a particularly pleasing, fruity aroma and flavor character. [...]
[...] The choice of concentration in food process finds justification both in microbiological field from the increase of the product stability achieved with the lowering of water activity, the concentration of the juices is a common method to reduce the cost of transportation of the juices. The cost of storage, packaging, transportation and distribution of large volumes of juices is high. These costs for concentrated juice product are much less since a major portion of water in the juice is removed. [...]
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