Shabbat begins on Wednesday just before sunset and lasts till the following Saturday when we can see the first star. Of course there are some tables with all the hours, called lou'hot, made by rabbinic authority. It is forbidden to work on Shabbat and that's why it is the official rest day in Israel, shops and public transport don't work.
The roots of the word Shabbat is shev which is the root of lashevet, a verb used in Hebrew to mean to sit. Most people translate it by resting however it seems it refers more to abstention (from work), cessation associated with the notion of voluntary rest. Jewish theology underlined the fact that Shabbat, with its abstinence of creative work, was chosen by God to enable people to take rest to regenerate their souls.
[...] The Tanakh and the Siddour (books of Jewish prayers) ascribe three roles to Shabbat Commemoration of Israelite redemption from slavery in Egypt. Commemoration of the creation of the world by God and his abstention during the seventh day. Indeed, God was the first to observe Shabbat. An introduction to the world during the messianic time. During Shabbat, a special part of the Torah is read called the Sefer Torah, and this is done during the service at the synagogue on Saturday morning. [...]
[...] To put through a riddle to select 9. To grind 10. To knead 11. To bake 12. To shear 13. To wash the wool 14. To comb the wool 15. To dye the wool 16. To spin 17. To hatch 18. Make some weaving-buckle to link up 19. To weave two threads 20. To separate two threads 21. To tie a knot 22. To undo a knot 23. To sew two knot 24. To unpick 25. To capture 26. To slaughter animals 27. [...]
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