The notion of control implies the ability to direct an enterprise and determine its strategy. This ability can be exercised by an investor with a majority shareholding (more than 50%). The aggregate nationally-controlled enterprises includes enterprises controlled by the reporting economy and enterprises under multiple minority ownership. The latter have two or more shareholders (foreign or of the reporting economy), each owning between 10% and 50% of the shares. It is important to bear in mind that the comparisons are made between enterprises of relatively small (nationally controlled)and much larger (foreign-controlled) average size and that there may be certain activities where the average size of an enterprise plays an important part in determining productivity, due to a minimum efficient scales of production. Furthermore, most foreign-controlled enterprises are believed to be owned by multinationals or groups, whereas this is less likely to be the case for nationally-controlled enterprises. High productivity rates may be attributable to the individual national economic framework; for example, low corporate tax rates could lead to a high level of transfer-pricing. The calculations presented in this Statistics in Focus should therefore be treated with caution.
[...] An assessment of the nature and extent of foreign control in the Indian economy necessitates a discussion on the concepts and definitions of what can be considered a foreign controlled enterprise. The need for such a discussion arises primarily because of the absence of any clear official definition of foreign capital in the country. One would normally presume that different administrative wings of the Government, like the Ministries of Company Affairs, Industrial Development and Finance, who administer various regulations, would not only have conceptual clarity but would also have evolved a legal framework to deal with different forms of foreign private capital including the Transnational Corporations (TNCs). [...]
[...] The potential of the sector is evident from existing and projected estimates: Presently the total asset size of the Indian banking sector is US$ 270 billion while the total deposits amount to US$ 220 billion in a banking network of over 66,000 branches across the country. The size of the insurance market with only 20 per cent of the insurable population currently insured, presents an immense opportunity to new players. Foreign insurance majors have entered the country in a big way and started joint ventures in both life and non-life areas. [...]
[...] With over 3600 direct member firms in both the public and private sector, CII is a strong supporter of both Indian industry and international investment and trade. the first glimpses of liberalization in the Indian economy emerged in the early 1980s and were reinforced in 1985-86, but they were not sustained. Balance-of-payments difficulties, the decline in foreign exchange reserves, and the overall stagnation in the economic situation led to the renewed drive for liberalization since July 1991. There was awareness that India had been over-regulated in regard to trade, investment and infrastructure. [...]
[...] (TELCO) and Khatau Junker.21 This, is, insignificant from the point of identifying the dominant influence in enterprises where the Indian partner belongs to the more powerful of the business groups operating in India. The data we have put together in the Annexure below have been compiled from various sources. The main sources are the balance sheets of the companies in the Corporate Studies Group. The official directory of the Bombay Stock Exchange and the Statistics of the Controller of Capital Issues under the Ministry of Finance are the two other sources from which we have collected the data. [...]
[...] But given the budgetary support limitation due to growing demands from other sectors, particularly social sector and the severe borrowing constraints, a new financing strategy was enunciated in 1991 allowing private enterprise a larger role in the power sector. The all India installed capacity of electric power generating stations under utilities was 104917 MW as on March 2002 consisting of 26261 MW hydro MW thermal MW nuclear and 1507 MW wind. A capacity addition target of 4764 MW consisting of 1536 MW of Hydro and 3228 MW of thermal was envisaged for the year 2001-02 of which 3115 MW consisting of 1106 MW of hydro and 2009 MW of thermal was achieved. [...]
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