Relationship, conflict and migration, internally displaced persons, refugees
This essay discusses the relationship between conflict and migration. It focuses on IDPs (internally displaced persons) and refugees, mostly leaving out the motives of economic or social migration. The first chapter states factors that cause displacement, followed by a discussion about the extent to which mass displacement or migration can cause or exacerbate conflict. The second part treats the security risks faced by IDPs and refugees including the risks for communities, which is associated with migration, focusing on how they contribute to outbreak/escalation of conflict, giving counterarguments to the discussion. The last part states additional reasons for migration apart from conflict.
[...] Ethnical affiliation can create or avoid problems between refugees and the host nation. An example for successful integration is the three million Afghan refugees of Pashtun origin who settled among fellow Pashtun communities in Pakistan. Throughout their settlement there the process was largely peaceful (WDR 2011, P 11, 17). However, ethnical affiliation can also threaten the social peace as an influx of one ethnical group, as seen in Macedonia, when Kosovo-Albanians looked for refuge there in the 1990s and the social structure was thrown out of balance (WDR 2011, P.11). [...]
[...] One country strongly affected by this mass migration is Lebanon. In itself a rather fragile state Lebanon is fighting to cope with the influx of refugees from Syria into mostly northern Lebanon. This creates conflict between the resident Lebanese population and the Syrian refugees which results in attacks on the Syrians and anger about political non- decisions by the Lebanese government amongst the Lebanese population (Ferris WDR 2011, P. 14). At the outbreak of the war, Lebanon was welcoming refugees. [...]
[...] At the same time it needs to be stated that conflict cannot only enhance but also hinder movement as conflict disrupts patterns of mobility (Black, Collyer 2014, P. 52) and those who beforehand were able to move unhindered are now unable to move. This mostly affects the less affluent of a society and therefor this share of the population affected by conflict is unable to move away from it (Black, Collyer 2014, P. 52f). Ethical cleansing can be a result of uni-ethical rulership in one country. [...]
[...] [Online] Available at: http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/genocide_in_rwanda.htm [Accessed 16 March 2015]. The World Bank The Impacts of Refugees on Neighboring Countries: A Development Challenge, WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2011 BACKGROUND NOTE. Washington 2010: World Bank. UNHCR QUICK IMPACT PROJECTS (QiPs), A PROVISIONAL GUIDE, Geneva. UNHCR Global Trends 2013, War's Human Cost. UNHCR Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities. Veröffentlicht Nothilfe für irakische Familien auf der Flucht. [Online] Available at: http://de.wfp.org/artikel/nothilfe-fuer-irakische- familien-auf-der-flucht?gclid=CMGRxery6sMCFW3LtAodL38AGQ [Accessed 16 March 2015]. Webb, P. [...]
[...] In Afghanistan and Iraq amongst other nations, the majority of civilian deaths in conflict zones occur due to disease and illness and not from violence (Bonventre 2010, P.21). This happens because public health systems and pharmaceutical and medical logistics systems collapse in time of conflict and access to safe water and food is reduced (Fagen, 2011). Additionally, health workers emigrate or flee the region, health infrastructure is damaged or looted and security for both patients and health workers cannot be guaranteed (Bonventre 2010, P.21). Logically, this process continues even after the end of the conflict as infrastructure needs to be built up again. (Bonventre 2010, P. [...]
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