Cyprus is the third largest Island in the Mediterranean. The Republic of Cyprus has sovereignty over the entire island of Cyprus except small portions that are allocated to the United Kingdom as military bases. Its political setup is complicated by the fact that it is divided into two main territories. The republic of Cyprus effectively controls about 59% of the island's area, and the Northern area has been occupied by the Turks since 1983. This area is called The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, covering about 37% of the island's area and recognized only by Turkey. The population thus consists of Greeks and the Turkish minority community. The Republic of Cyprus has been part of the European Union since 2004. Cyprus is the only country in the European Union is still divided, but has always played an important role in the trade system between Europe and the Mediterranean civilization because of its geographical position.
[...] What caused the political problem of Cyprus was caused by the irregular situation of the island; its de facto division, and the existence of two states, of which the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was not recognized by the international community. The solution proposed by the United Nations was the reunification of the island into a federation in which each community would administer to its own territorial area, with two politically equal communities. The choice of Cypriots to join the European Union had been considered by the UN as an alternative strategy for the settlement of Cyprus problem, but the first reaction of the TRNC was rather negative, as this application was unacceptable to the Turkish leaders,. [...]
[...] Community structure was established in all areas of the government, like the Chamber of Deputies to the police, with 70% of positions filled by Greeks, and 30% by Turks. The Army consisted of 40% Turks though they constituted only 18% of the population of the island. The main cause of the weakness of the system was the fact that "The President and the Vice President had, separately and jointly, the final veto on any law or decision concerning foreign affairs”. [...]
[...] Despite the conflicts, the Republic of Cyprus proclaimed independence on August 16th with Archbishop Makarios as the first President and, Dr. Küçük as the first Vice-President. B. The conflict between the Turks and Greeks that led to the crisis of 1974 The Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus highlighted the differences between the Greek and Turkish communities, thereby preventing the integration of the two communities. Under the Constitution, the State of Cyprus became a republic under a presidential system, with the Greek President and Vice-President elected directly by a universal suffrage for tenure of five years. [...]
[...] Movement of Cyprus which was hitherto supportive of the British administration began to protest against the British authorities, and began demanding Enosis, (union) with Greece. Great Britain replied by changing the status of the island in 1925. Cyprus thus became a Crown Colony. Anti-British protests multiplied and the political crisis further deepened with imposition of emergency law leading to the gagging of the press, restriction of movement and the expulsion of several leading bishops from the island. This system remained in force until the Second World War, as it served British interests in Cyprus . [...]
[...] Yet the political climate changed recently in Cyprus and after more than thirty years of division, the new leaders of both Cypriot communities, President Christofias (elected in February 2008) and Mr. Talat (elected in April 2005) demonstrated a determination to reach a settlement. The political process now entered a new phase with the opening of negotiations in March 2008 under the auspices of the United Nations Secretary General. The two leaders agreed to establish working groups to address key issues of future regulation, particularly on governance and power sharing. [...]
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