The history of the Mediterranean region deals with the interaction of cultures and people of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea which was the central superhighway of transport trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples. This history is important in order to understand the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Persian and Canaanite, Jewish, Greek, Roman, Carthaginian and Islamic cultures.
This paper explores the European colonization of the Mediterranean that began in the late 18th Century, and ended in the erosion of the imperial order in the 1950's. The major events in the efforts at Colonization were as follows:
Napoleon Bonaparte realized that in order to be able to confront the English Royal Navy he had to strengthen Frances' naval power. H proposed to do so by seizing Egypt, as this would undermine Britain's access to India and hamper trade. Despite several victories in his expedition into Syria, Napoleon and his naval power were eventually forced to withdraw due to a combination of local hostility, the British naval power, the newly reformed Ottoman army and the Parisian politics.
[...] World War II War breaks out in the Mediterranean region: German invasion 1940: In April Germany invaded Denmark and Norway to secure shipments of iron ore from Sweden, which the Allies would try to disrupt. Denmark immediately capitulated, and despite Allied support, Norway was conquered within two months. Germany's aim was to establish naval bases in Algeria and Tunisia. Italian Invasion: On 10 June, Italy invaded; declaring war on both France and the United Kingdom and twelve days later France surrendered and was soon divided into German and Italian occupation zones, and an unoccupied rump state under the Vichy Regime. [...]
[...] In March 1905, the Kaiser landed at Tangier where he made a speech greeting the Sultan of Morocco as an independent sovereign and promising him German protection if France attempted to colonize his state. The German government followed this up by demanding an international conference to clarify the status of Morocco. Germany's aim of calling a conference was to humiliate France and to split the Entente because from the point of view of international law, Morocco was an independent state and the French claim to Morocco was illegal. [...]
[...] The Royal navy came forward to meets Russia's request and sailed under the command of Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood, commander-in-chief of the British Mediterranean Fleet, for the Dardanelles to make preparations for the upcoming assault. In the meantime, the British ambassador to Constantinople, Arbuthnot, demanded that the Ottoman government evict Sebastiani, and added that should the Ottomans resist the ultimatum, the Mediterranean fleet would attack. Collingwood had chosen a small force for the operation. Admiral Dmitry Senyavin was sent to support the British, but did not join Duckworth until after the exit from Dardanelles was made. [...]
[...] The History of Lebanon Civil War between Druze and Christians In 1860 foreign interests transformed sociopolitical struggles into bitter religious conflicts in Lebanon. A civil war erupted between Druze and Christians. The commission members agreed that the partition of Mount Lebanon in 1842 between the Druze and the Christians had been responsible for the massacre. The violent incident started on the 9th of July, when a mob of 20,000- 50,000 from the Maidan, and Salihya districts of Damascus attacked, killed and pillaged the Christian Quarter and its inhabitants to 12,000 were estimated to have perished. [...]
[...] seeking a safe harbor to re-supply his ships on their way to Egypt, and once safely admitted turned against his hosts, the Knights of the Order of St John. The Knights were bound by the Rule that prohibited them from raising weapons against other questions, and thus capitulated readily. Napoleon spent six eventful days in Malta during which he tried to reorganize the administration through various dictates' including inauguration of a new educational system, abolishing slavery and granting religious freedom to the island's Jewish community. [...]
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