From the seventh to the eighteenth century, the Arab World has formed a large area regrouping a Muslim population, sharing a common religion and culture. In different parts of the Islamic World, Islam was the bound between the Umma. Since the fourteenth century, the main part of the Arab world had been under the Ottoman domination. The eighteenth century is a turning point in the history of that world. Hourani calls that period the changing balance of power in the eighteenth century. The Arab World, which had been in expansion from the seventh to the seventeenth century, was not anymore the powerful region it used to be. This century is also the one of the changing of dominant power. The Ottoman domination gave way to the European one. Among European countries, most shared the idea that the strength of a nation was enhanced by the conquest of new territories. The Arab world became a zone of competition between the European powers, which had a lot of influence on the Arab Society. The History of the Arab World is inextricably linked to the domination of a great power, first Ottoman and then European.
[...] Hourani make an interesting rapprochement, “since the aim of the nationalist movements was to create an autonomous and flourishing modern society, the revival of the Arabic language as a medium of modern expression and the bond of unity was a central theme”. The Arabic was spread in the all the Arab world through newspapers, radio, movies and literature, thus playing its historical role of bind between the members of the Umma. The nationalism in those times was generally secularist. The need of education was one of the first objectives, even for women. [...]
[...] The Arab culture was preserved during this period, in the Arab provinces. During the sixteenth en seventeenth century, a large number of religious building were constructed in different parts of the Empire, such as the shrine of Sidi Mahraz in Tunis or the mosque of Suleyman Pasha in the Citadel in Cairo. Despite the fact that Turkish was the language of the ruling elite, the Arabic language was preserved and even reinforced. The Ottoman Empire, allowed the preservation of the Arab and Islamic cultures. [...]
[...] Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples, 268-269. Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples Julia Clancy-Smith, Shaykh and His Daughter: Coping in Colonial Alegeria,” in Struggle and Survival in the Modern Middle East, ed. Edmund Burke III and David N. Yaghoubian (Berkeley : University of California Press, 2006), 119-136. Hourani, A History of The Arab Peoples Hourani, A History of The Arab Peoples Sami Zubaida, An Iraqi Country Doctor,” in Struggle and [...]
[...] Two conferences in Alexandria in 1944 and in Cairo in 1945 led to the creation of the League of Arab States, regrouping seven states which wanted to act together on common issues, such as the defence of Arabs in Palestine. Within the twenty years following the end of the war, the Arab colonies granted their independence. However after several decades of foreign occupation, everything was to be reconstructed, the end of European presence let the Arab countries independent for the first time since many centuries. [...]
[...] Ghada did desperate temptation, in the hope to be evicted from the West bank, to join her family in Amman and escaping an unhappy marriage. Another consequence of this oppression is the increase of suicide bombing. The movie Paradise Now of Hany Abu Assad portrays the hopelessness of young Palestinian people, who decide to launch a suicide attack on Israel. In Palestinian attacks were directed towards the Jewish settlements in occupied territories and in Israel. Many of them were led by “Secular Palestinians”.Today the situation is far from being resolved, even if some hopes can be raised after the Annapolis Conference the last 27 November. [...]
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