Second Language Acquisition (SLA) is learning development in which people acquire a new or more commonly known as second language in addition to their native tongue. The second language is often referred as target language or L2. Moreover, a second language denotes any new language learned after early childhood years. This means subsequently languages learned i.e. third or fourth language is still referred to as second language (online, Wikipedia, 2006).Stephen Krashen (1981) differentiated "language acquisition" from formal and non-constructive language learning". At present, most experts more commonly interchange the two terms, i.e. language acquisition and language learning. Nevertheless, most experts recognize SLA as the more well-known term (online, Wikipedia, 2006).
A number of personal and environmental factors may affect the decision to learn a second language. Examples of such factors include family influences, social groups or peers, teachers, school, age, and self-concept.
An individual may pursue a study on acquiring a second language skill for various reasons and motivation. In a study of UK and European students, Coleman (1996) reports that the several reasons a student pursues a study a foreign language. These reasons are the following: 1) to be able to develop a career advantage for opportunities in the future; 2) a student's personal inclination to learn the language; 3) to be able to learn and appreciate to cultural differences; 4) for an enhanced comprehension of the culture where the language is used; 5) and to be able to reside in nations where the language is used.
[...] However, this method suggest that the best and most effective way to learn the target language is for students to “overlearn” the target language through extensive repetition and a variety of elaborate drills. The method presents that the idea is to instill in the linguistic patterns in the minds of the students in a way that elicits an automatic response in other words, developing a “habit-forming” response. Nonetheless, the challenge of the audiolingual method is that language of the native language would constantly interfere. [...]
[...] Grammar translation method in the light of current second language acquisition Even though the study of structure of language can have a instructional advantage for educational institution, Krashen (1981) still maintains that these approaches do not directly translate to language acquisition. According to Krashen (1981), the only instance in which the teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition (and proficiency) is when students are motivated to learn the subject and the target language is used as a medium of instructions. [...]
[...] In fact, Krashen (1981) further elaborates that language acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language natural communication in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding. One of the issues of using Grammar Translation Method is that classes where taught in the mother language not in the English language. The methodology is unable to create a “communicative” competence among its students because it does not assist students in developing oral communication, more spontaneous use of English language, and the ability to and “communicate” in the English language. [...]
[...] Affective principle would illustrate a person's self-esteem or self-image effects in overall progress and speed in second language acquisition. It can be described by the following keywords: language ego, self-confidence, risk-taking, and language-culture connection. Language ego describes the new mindset a student must take in order to effectively acquire a new language. That is, learning a new language involves developing a new mode of thinking or a new language ego. Self-confidence would suggest that learner's self-esteem can hinder or hasten language acquisition because students believe they have the ability to do so. [...]
[...] Native language effect suggests that a learner's native language assist in facilitating as well as interferes on learning the second language. Interlanguage would suggest there a systematic learning process in acquiring a new language. Lastly, acquiring a second language requires communicative competence. Fluency and oral communication skills are just as important as accuracy and proper usage. A number of language teaching method has emerge in the last century in reaction to the Grammar Translation Method employed in Universities and schools to teach second language. [...]
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