Classical conditioning, Marketing, behavioral theories
The classical conditioning theory is among the most influential behavioral theories in the field of psychology. Behaviorists believe the environment is the single biggest determinant of human behavior, values and attitudes. Therefore, behavioral theories explain how manipulation of environmental functions can produce specific reactions in humans (Domjan& Burkhard, 2007). Therefore, these theories are of significant relevance to marketing because marketing strategies attempt to create attitudes that direct the purchasing behavior of consumers and sustain these attitudes over long periods.
Ivan Pavlov proposed the classical conditioning theory(Domjan & Burkhard, 2007). Pavlov conditioned a dog to respond a certain way to a particular stimuli by using the principles of association. In time, he was able to establish a specific response in the dog, even in the absence of the stimuli. The process of conditioning has four principles(Domjan & Burkhard, 2007). All the principles are important in understanding the theory and consequently its significance in direction of marketing strategies.
[...] The greatest strength of classical conditioning in marketing is therefore its ability to sustain consumer behavior. The conditioned consumers are sometimes even willing to pay more for a product because of their association of the product with positive response. However, despite all the strengths and abilities of classical conditioning, it has some flaws that make it hard to use in marketing strategies. Limitations of application of classical conditioning in marketing strategies Behaviorists believe that the existing attitudes are insignificant to behavior, choosing to focus on the role of the environment in development of attitudes. [...]
[...] Classical conditioning is reliant on the quality of a product. Since the product has to produce the conditioned response on the consumers, it has to meet their standards(Panda, 2008). Therefore, in using classical conditioning in a marketing strategy, it is important to select the product carefully because unlike other marketing models that rely on brands and perception of the buyers, the classical conditioning model is reliant on the ability of the product to produce a positive reaction from the consumers. [...]
[...] In addition, some of the principles of classical conditioning are not feasible to marketing campaigns. For example, negative reinforcement and punishment are part of the conditioning process. They are used to eliminate negative attributes in the subjects of conditioning. For example, in classrooms, where the theory is most applicable, students are often punished to eliminate undesirable behavior (Schiffman, 2011). There is no way to punish clients for demonstrating undesirable behavior. Therefore, while conditioning can be used to boost positive attributes such as buying the advertised goods, there is no way to eliminate undesirable attributes. [...]
[...] The psychological theory of classical condition is such a theory. When applied in the correct manner, the principles of classical conditioning theory are applicable in development of effective marketing models. The classical conditioning theory The classical conditioning theory is among the most influential behavioral theories in the field of psychology. Behaviorists believe the environment is the single biggest determinant of human behavior, values and attitudes. Therefore, behavioral theories explain how manipulation of environmental functions can produce specific reactions in humans (Domjan& Burkhard, 2007). [...]
[...] The conditioned stimuli occurs after conditioning. For example, in Pavlov's experiments, the conditioned stimuli was the bell. The bell eventually produced the same response in the experimental dogs as food. In marketing strategies, a conditional stimulus is the key to using classical conditioning. The consumers have to be conditioned to respond to a product the same way they respond to an unconditional stimulus(Domjan & Burkhard, 2007). The conditional stimuli is the substitute to the unconditional stimulus that a subject has been conditioned to respond to. [...]
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