The purpose of this article by Papavassiliou and Stathakopoulos was to create a framework capable of detailing the environmental determinants that affect the degree of standardization or adaptation needed in international advertising decisions.
Some studies argue that a standardized advertising strategy is the most desirable option when consumer needs are universal (e.g. Levitt, 1983, Buzell 1968 and Killough 1978), while others argue that adaptation of the advertising strategy across boundaries is more appropriate, due to differences in the buying motives and cultures of the consumer (e.g. Helming, 1982, Youvich, 1982; Kotler 1986). Some academics suggest a combination of standardization and adaptation (Quelch and Hoff, 1986; Peebles et al., 1977). The authors list several factors (related to local, firm and intrinsic determinants) which influence international advertising decisions, and the degree of standardization or adaptation that may be appropriate for the firm. They conclude with a proposal of a continuum for international advertising decisions, showing, on one hand, the standardized creative advertising strategies and tactics, and on the other, the adapted creative advertising strategies and tactics.
The specific elements that can be adapted or standardized along the continuum, are the key advertising decisions any firm has to make:
- What is the message? (Creative strategy: intention of the message; appeal)
- Who is the target market? How must the message be constructed to reach them? (Creative tactics)
- Which media is most effective? (Media strategy) (F. Brassington et al., (2003)).
Creative strategy refers to the advertising concept or theme (promise/claim), while creative tactics relate to the way in which the advertising strategy is expressed or executed in the finished advertisements (e.g. visual elements, headlines, content of appeal, process of appeal) (Papavassiliou, 1990, p.505).
In the following section, the continuum is introduced, with the factors influencing international advertising strategies. Standardized or adapted conditions are illustrated, and research evidence given wherever necessary in the article.
Subsequently, the research methodology is scrutinized and eventual improvements/gaps shown. Finally, a comment is made on what the article contributed to our understanding of international marketing.
[...] is one of the most important determinants a lot of evidence exists standardized advertising is more feasible for industrial goods than for consumer goods (Boddewyn et al, 1986). Nature of the Product THIS IS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT FACTOR!!! Boddewyn et al (1986) reported that standardized advertising is good for industrial goods but not for consumer goods. Mueller's study (1991) examined how product involvement influenced international advertising standardisation. Zaichkowsky (1986) compares high-involvement products (localize strategy) and low involvement products (standardize strategy). [...]
[...] Introduction to IASC The international creative advertising strategy and tactics are represented on an international advertising strategy continuum (IASC), showing the degree of standardization and adaptation in advertising for a multinational firm. Which elements are standardized or adapted, and to what degree, are in turn determined by a company-specific analysis of and “intrinsic” determinants affecting the business. The IASC consequently shows the relationship of these factors and the advertising effectiveness Determinants influencing Standardization or Adaptation of International Advertising Strategies & Tactics (IAST) LOCAL environmental Adaptation Standardization determinants Similarity Cultural environment across - Different different countries (similarity or not) Similarity Economic conditions across - Different different countries; (similarity or not) Similar Legal condition across - Different different countries; (similar or not?) Not high in host Presence of local and - High in host countries international countries competition (is high in the host countries or not?) Well developed Advertising infrastructure - Underdeveloped (well developed or underdeveloped?) Convergence Consumer profile across - Uniqueness different countries; (unique or convergence) Strong Country of origin Image - Not strong Standardization FIRM environmental Adaptation determinants Managerial and financial characteristics Not culture The strategic orientation - Very culture oriented of the oriented corporation Great Financial position of the - No difficulties organization difficulties (difficulties or not?) Nature of product Industrial - Is it more about: industrial - Consumer products products, products/d.p consumer products or consumer durable products? [...]
[...] Harvey (1993), Jain (1989) and Hout et al (1982) argue that presence of suppliers, industry structure, and company`s market position and consumer bargaining power can affect the degree of ad standardization Jain, (1989) proposes standardization rather than adaptation, if the degree of local and international competition is high Advertising infrastructu - Jain, (1989): degree of competition is low: re standardization of advertising strategy However: the exact way competition affects the degree of international advertising standardization has not yet been established. [...]
[...] Methodology This article is a literature review, that is, a comparative analysis of existing empirical evidence and research with a view to proving a new theory in this case, the international advertising strategy continuum. A literature review is different from other forms of academic research, in that it makes its assumptions based solely on existing academic literature i.e. no primary research or data collection takes place. In this particular case, the authors refer to a considerable number of seemingly reliable academic sources. [...]
[...] And finally, while the arguments may be well defined, they do not tell us anything that should not already be obvious to any international manager. A study that went beyond the points made and outlined what to do next, while perhaps impossibly large, would nevertheless be more useful. Reference List Article Editorial - European Journal of Marketing: “Standardization versus adaptation of international advertising strategies: Towards a framework”, by Nikolaos Papavassiliou and Vlasis Stathakopoulos; Department of Management Science and Marketing, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece; Vol No pp. [...]
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