Today's business organizations constantly face internal and external pressures in addressing their social and environmental responsibilities. Since the 1960s, the society has expressed growing expectations for more responsible management of companies through the incentive of the social activist movement. A decade later, the workforce, environment and consumers were officially accepted by governmental bodies as important actors of business. Nowadays, MultiNational Corporations publish regularly their Corporate Social Responsibility reports not only to prove their concerns about their environment or to give themselves a clear conscience but also to gain the trust of their stakeholders. Freeman and Reed defined stakeholders as 'any identifiable group or individual who can affect or be affected by the achievement of an organization's objectives'. Corporate Social Responsibility also helps companies forecast trends and analyze non-economic potential risks. According to the agency theory, managers of companies are seen as agents who act on the behalf of stakeholder's interests.
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[...] Finally, Mattel increased the number of internal inspections and independent ICCA audits in its vendors and own factories (Mattel, 2009). Its failure in assuring the quality and safety of its products raised numbers of concerns about the working conditions of factory employees. Tom Debrowski, Mattel's vice president of global operations considers China attractive as it ‘offers a very well-developed infrastructure, well educated engineers, excellent transport and a business-friendly government' (Asia News, 2006). The NGO, Orientalfood (2007) has charged Mattel for outsourcing in Asia and Mexico which has led to closure of US factories such as the one in Medina in 1995 where 700 people lost their job (Foek, 1997). [...]
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[...] (2009a) Consumer responses to Mattel product recalls posted online bulletin board: exploring two types of emotion, Journal of Public Relations Research pp.198-207 Choi, Y. & Lin, Y.H. (2009b) Consumer response to crisis: exploring the concept of involvement in Mattel product recall, Public Relations Review pp.28-22 Ciulla, J., Martin, C.W. & Salomon, R.C. (2007) Honest work: a business ethics reader, New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press Desrochers, P. (2010) The environmental responsibility of business is to increase its profits (by creating value within the bounds of private property rights), Industrial & Corporate Change pp.161-204 Economy E.C. & Liberthal, K. [...]
[...] (1991b) Toward improving Corporate Social Performance, Business Horizons pp. 66-73 Appendices Fig.1: The Triple Bottom Line Source: Schlange, L.E. (2009) Stakeholder Identification in Sustainability Entrepreneurship, Greener Management International Fig.2: The Carroll's Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility Source: Carroll, A.B. (1991) The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders, Business Horizons Fig.3 : The Robin and Reidenbach's Multidimensional Ethics Scale Fig.4 : The Corporate Social Performance model Source: Wood, D.J. [...]
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