War is a situation that embodies the principle of duality: one side is pitted against another in an "an act of violence intended to compel an opponent to fulfill our will ." That will, whatever it may be, "has its root in a political object " that is determined within ideological constraints. This pattern is corroborated by conclusions determined by other human endeavors. Psychologically speaking, perception precedes action; philosophically, ontology precedes ethics, and politically, ideology precedes war. As the soldier-cum-philosopher of war Clausewitz muses, "Is not War merely another kind of writing and language for political thoughts? ."
[...] Pacifism and the Just War. Basil Blackwell, New York: 1986. Tucker, Robert. The Just War. Greenwood Press, Westport Connecticut: 1960. Phillips, War and Justice ibid ibid Teichman, Pacifism and the Just War The messianic character is present almost universally throughout the history of religions: Daoism has its Golden Age, Buddhism its Maitreya- Buddha, Christianity its second coming of Christ, Zoroastrianism its Saoshyant, and Judaism the messianic age of heaven on earth (complete with many ‘false messiahs' from the Shabtai Zvi to the 20th century Lubavitcher Rebbe). [...]
[...] Despite its reputation for causing conflict, most notably in the Crusades, Christianity also has an established history of pacifism (though, as we will see, its use in actual foreign policy still tends toward being an excuse for militarism). Several sects that were founded in the 19th century and continue through today exhibit pacifist beliefs of the ‘eschatological' variety. They share a belief in the imminence of the Day of Judgement when the godless will be destroyed, after which Christ will reign as King over the faithful in a new world. [...]
[...] In contrast, tactical pacifism “leaves open the question of whether force is justified in a given circumstance.” A third category of pacifism that segues between the extremes of intrinsicalist pacifism and outright militarism is termed eschatological pacifism. This idea, which is peculiar to a few Christian denominations, teaches that there will be an Apocalyptic war at the last day between the forces of good and evil, but until then wars are to be utterly rejected. Merely human wars, that is, are forbidden, and human beings will only be indirectly involved in the war of the Day of God's Wrath. Considering pacifisms in terms of foreign policy requires the existence of actual groups that have gained the power necessary to assert their ideologies as active policies of state. [...]
[...] "Jerry" Boykin has been quoted by the Los Angeles times as declaring that in the army of God, in the house of God, kingdom of God have been raised for such a time as [the war on terrorism].” The tension between church and state is never more prominent than in the connection between ideology and war. The interaction between a state's leader and the people who advise that leader can be reduced to the interplay between ideology and the practical facts of an actual political situation. [...]
[...] op cit Goldhammer, 11/22/03 ibid ibid Teichman, op cit Phillips, op cit ibid 102 Tucker, The Just War,11. Teichman Phillips, op. cit ibid ibid Swearer, Donald. Journal of Buddhist Ethics 7 (2000): 204–207. ibid. Phillips op. cit A Human Approach to World Peace by H.H. the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, < http://www.fpmt.org/teachings/hhdlworldpeace3.asp> Swearer, Donald. op cit. Phillips, op.cit Schrei, Josh: Lie Repeated,” www.studentsforafreetibet.org Pocha, Jehangir. “Tibet's Gamble - Can the Dalai Lama's China talks succeed?” In These Times December 2003. Schrei, op cit. Clements, Alan. Voice of Hope. p149. [...]
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