A sophisticated transport system has evolved in Europe to move people and frets. The air transport industry is growing at rate above the average growth of the economy of the EU: multiplication of short distance flies, the arrival of the "low cost" market, and increasing of aerial fret transportation. Between 1980 and 1995 the air transport demand has grown by 5% and will go on increasing up to 2015. It facilitates economic and cultural exchanges and is a significant source of employment and growth in many regions. But this growth is followed by the growth of air pollution and climate change. The international awareness of the pollution created by aircraft's has started in 1970. The air transport contributes to the greenhouse effect and also to different kind of pollutions such as noise and several kinds of gases emissions. So what is the real link between air transportation and climate change?
[...] The Kyoto Protocol (signed by 125 countries and which defined the several quantified engagements of each country to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions) has never dealt with the pollution due to the air transport industry: yet up to now air transportation has always escaped from every plan against climate change. But now some solutions start to be implemented The solutions currently implemented to reduce air pollution on climate change There has been significant improvement in aircraft technology and operational efficiency, but it is not enough. [...]
[...] The direct or indirect contribution of air transportation on climate change is particularly increasing. While the EU's total greenhouse gas emission fell by from 1990 to 2002, emissions from international aviation increased by almost 70%. Commercial aircraft operate at cruise altitudes of 8 to 13 km where they release gases and particulates which alter the atmosphere composition. A gas emitted in a high altitude has an effect two or tree times more important than a gas emitted at the ground zero level. [...]
[...] To summarise the main objectives are: -to halt the net growth in climate impacts attributable to air transport -to provide stronger economic incentives to improve environmental performances -reflecting the true cost of air transport in the price Conclusion The problem of climate change because of air transportation is really taken into consideration. But the efforts are not sufficient to neutralise the effect of increased traffic. To date, policies instituted at international, regional and national level have not required any substantial contribution from the aviation sector. [...]
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