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Ecology & environment

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28 Nov 2008
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Forest fires (prediction, prevention and suppression)

Essay - 7 pages - Ecology & environment

The problems and negative impacts associated with large-scale uncontrolled forest ?res have increased worldwide over the past two decades. Globally an estimated 300-400 million hectares of forests and woodlands burn annually, emitting an estimated 9.2 billion tonnes of greenhouse gases; however,...

28 Nov 2008
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Soil erosion control

Essay - 6 pages - Ecology & environment

Soil erosion control in managed forests is undertaken, and best achieved, for two main reasons. The ?rst relates to soil protection for the sustainable productivity of the forest resource. The second relates to the protection of valuable water resources located in forested catchments. The...

28 Nov 2008
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Propagation technology for forest trees

Essay - 8 pages - Ecology & environment

There are six major kinds of propagules now available for the reproduction of forest trees: seeds, sprouts, grafts, cuttings, tissue-culture plantlets, and somatic embryos. Each has two or more subclasses, and each has increasingly understood advantages, disadvantages, and uses. For several of...

25 Nov 2008
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Genetic aspects of air pollution and climate change

Essay - 6 pages - Ecology & environment

The ?rst incidences of air pollution impacts on the genetic constitution of forest tree populations were those documented near point sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulates, and heavy metals. Localized extinction of forests around these point sources was documented by ecologists in the past...

25 Nov 2008
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Genecology and the adaptations of forest trees

Essay - 8 pages - Ecology & environment

Genecology is the study of intraspeci?c genetic variation in relation to environmental conditions. It reveals patterns of adaptation of populations to their environments that result from differences in natural selection among locations. Genecological studies are conducted for the practical...

25 Nov 2008
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Cytogenetics of forest tree species

Essay - 9 pages - Ecology & environment

The discipline of cytogenetics was ?rst de?ned by Sutton in 1903, as a ?eld of investigation which developed from the separate sciences of genetics and cytology. It is concerned with studies on the correlation of genetic and cytological (especially chromosomal) features characterizing a...

25 Nov 2008
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The global and forest environment carbon cycle

Essay - 5 pages - Ecology & environment

The forest environment carbon cycle can be viewed at a number of scales. Measurements can be made at the scale of an individual leaf or tree, stand-scale measurements can be made, and models can be developed that examine forest-level, regional, and global carbon cycles. The role of the forest in...

25 Nov 2008
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Diagnosis, monitoring and evaluation of forest health and protection

Essay - 9 pages - Ecology & environment

Over the last 30 years forest health became a popular issue together with the concern about acid rain, air pollution, and climate change. Terms like forest decline, and the German ‘Waldsterben' (forest death) and ‘Neuartigen Waldscha ┬Ęden' (new type of forest damage) became frequent in...

21 Nov 2008
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Environmental impacts on forests

Essay - 7 pages - Ecology & environment

There is considerable debate over de?nitions for the word ‘forest' and even for ‘tree.' Most vegetation types fall clearly into the categories of forest or nonforest, but there is dispute at the margins. A similar debate rages over the classi?cation of forests into natural and arti?cial...

21 Nov 2008
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Impacts of air pollution on forest ecosystems

Essay - 10 pages - Ecology & environment

Air pollution problems are international in scale. All forests worldwide experience some degree of air pollution exposure above preindustrial levels. Atmospheric transport processes do not recognize geographic borders, but sources of pollutants, the pollutants of concern, and the speci?c effects...

21 Nov 2008
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Natural disturbances in forest environments

Essay - 7 pages - Ecology & environment

Disturbance in plant communities has been de?ned as consisting of ‘the mechanisms which limit the plant biomass by causing its partial or total destruction.' In forests, disturbance arises from the agencies of tree damage or death. At small spatial scales, individual trees die standing or...

21 Nov 2008
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Plant-animal interactions in forest ecosystems

Essay - 7 pages - Ecology & environment

Flowering plants, being sedentary, have co-opted animal partners for purposes of gene exchange and propagule dispersal, through pollination and seed dispersal. To secure these services plants provide a variety of flower or fruit rewards creating some of the most common and obvious mutualistic...

21 Nov 2008
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Human influences on the tropical forest wildlife

Essay - 7 pages - Ecology & environment

Different patterns of anthropogenic forest disturbance can affect forest wildlife in both tropical and temperate regions in many ways. The overall impact of different sources of structural and nonstructural disturbance may depend on: (1) the groups of organisms considered; (2) the evolutionary...

21 Nov 2008
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Aquatic habitats in forest ecosystems

Essay - 8 pages - Ecology & environment

There is a wide variety of aquatic habitats found in forested areas ranging from water-?lled tree holes through to large rivers, lakes, and inundated forests. This article initially reviews the classi?cation of aquatic habitats and some of their important geomorphological, physicochemical, and...

19 Nov 2008
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Ground preparation in afforestation

Essay - 9 pages - Ecology & environment

Ground preparation is de?ned as the set of preliminary operations on soil that are required for effective establishment of tree seedlings. The main objective of ground preparation is to assure access to nutrients, air, and water for the seedlings to be planted. Ground preparation is more focused...

19 Nov 2008
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Endangered species of trees

Essay - 7 pages - Ecology & environment

Unfortunately the topic of endangered species of trees is a vast one because of the extensive loss of their habitat in most parts of the world and in many cases because of overexploitation. The World Conservation Union's (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Plants, published in 1997, lists almost 34000...

19 Nov 2008
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Population dynamics of forest insects

Essay - 5 pages - Ecology & environment

Population dynamics is the study of changes in the number of organisms in populations and the factors in?uencing these changes. It thus, by necessity, includes the study of the rates of loss and replacement of individuals and of those regulatory processes that can prevent excessive changes in...

11 Nov 2008
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Primate seed dispersal: Implications for conservation tactics

Essay - 5 pages - Ecology & environment

Many frugivorous primates act in an important ecosystem role as seed dispersers for local flora. The importance of this relationship is apparent through the realization that there is variation in the species of plant seeds dispersed by primates and non-primates, with primates often serving as the...

01 Oct 2008
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Alternative energy

Essay - 6 pages - Ecology & environment

This article explains the importance of the alternate energy. The traditional energy which we are using is not going to be adequate for our future needs and that too it reached its peak. Apart from its inadequate supply it is also producing enormous amount of pollution which is questioning the...

25 Sep 2008
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Effects of environmental enrichment on the consumption of a palatable food reward

Case study - 13 pages - Ecology & environment

Environmental enrichment (EE) is the study of organisms reared in complex, varied environments and the subsequent influences on behavior. Studies have shown many mechanisms for how EE elicits changes in behavior, mental and physical processes, and neurophysiology. EE has been shown to work as a...

24 Sep 2008
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Advantages and limitations of using tourism as a rationale for nature conservation and protected area establishment

Essay - 5 pages - Ecology & environment

Nearly everyone on the planet would love to see animals and wildlife in their natural habitat with plenty of the space and the resources they need to survive on their own. The problem is that this level of nature conservation is expensive. Leaving land free from development comes at a price. One...

07 Aug 2008
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Auto pollution: No solution?

Essay - 5 pages - Ecology & environment

For the sake of natural resources and the welfare and prosperity of the population, motor vehicle fuel economy and emission standards must be raised. The dangerous and complicated problems that we face both today and tomorrow with motor vehicles should not be ignored and cast aside, but solved as...

04 Aug 2008
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Long term effects of an oil spill on the environment and the economy

Essay - 5 pages - Ecology & environment

Despite these effects, however, the response of most people to oil spills is one of passing curiosity. The media may provide extensive coverage of the disaster, but few people would react to an oil spill the same way they would react to news of a hurricane. Certainly, the fact...

23 Jul 2008
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Prospects for green energy sources

Essay - 6 pages - Ecology & environment

Global warming has increasingly become an all-encompassing issue in both the media's and public opinion. It is only logical then that more and more attention is being paid to alternative energy sources which may have the capacity to not only provide a more environmentally friendly way of...

20 Jul 2008
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New approaches to decisions on global warming

Essay - 16 pages - Ecology & environment

Former Vice President Al Gore generated tremendous global awareness and concern for the issue of global warming through his movie, “An Inconvenient Truth”. His activism won him a Nobel Peace Prize, and the issue has become a central topic of discussion for many of the world's leaders....

17 Jul 2008
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Global warming - published: 17/07/2008

Essay - 5 pages - Ecology & environment

Recently, global warming has gained massive attention due to the documentary . An inconvenient truth presented by former Vice-President of the United States Al Gore. The National Academy of Sciences reported that “gases are accumulating...

14 Jul 2008
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The Brown Pelican problem

Essay - 4 pages - Ecology & environment

The Brown Pelican is part of the family Pelecanidae. “The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis ) is the smallest (42"-54") member of the seven species of the pelican family. (Wikipedia) ” It is still a relatively large bird, with a long, narrow beak. This...

08 Jul 2008
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Environmental Cluster

Essay - 4 pages - Ecology & environment

Learning about how to preserve the environment has always been one of my interests, and having a forester as a grandfather encouraged my passion for the environment and animals. A couple years ago, I took a class called Religion and the Earth with Dr. Christopher Bache, and it made me...

07 Jul 2008
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Tsunami: When nature strikes

Essay - 3 pages - Ecology & environment

Just as people thought the world is completely in their hands, a sudden twist of events will occur and prove them wrong. In as much as they endeavor to win over everything, nature strikes back, making them realize how weak they actually are compared to the world where they live in.It was one...

03 Jul 2008
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Ocean acidification

Essay - 6 pages - Ecology & environment

Recently, global warming has gained massive attention due to the documentary An Inconvenient Truth presented by former Vice-President of the United States Al Gore. In relation to that, the National Academy of Sciences reported that...