One of the gravest problems being experienced by non-oil producing developing country like India is spiraling prices of petroleum crude which has seriously inhibited growth of power sector thereby considerably decelerating the growth rate. Added to this, the explosion in the population of the country and especially bigger cities / metropolis like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and New Delhi has made the problem of municipal sewage disposal almost insurmountable. In recent years, refineries world over are facing residue disposal problems due to the shrinking market for high sulphur fuel oil on account of stringent norms on SO2 emissions worldwide. To overcome the difficulties associated with disposal of final residues, refiners are weighing gasification option for producing power through Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).
[...] The process gas than goes to sulfur condenser, where sulphur vapour formed is condensed and drained to the sulphur pit. The remaining sulphur is recovered in a three-stage catalytic converter. The tail gases from SRU are finally sent to an incinerator.The clean syngas from acid gas removal unit is used for power generation or it can be used for Fischer Tropsch synthesis. Economic evaluation is important to confirm the cost effectiveness of residue co-gasification route as compared to naphtha reforming route. [...]
[...] Acid gas removal section: The removal of COS and H2S from the syngas is achieved in this section. Many proven, acid gas removal processes e.g. DEA, AMDEA, Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol etc. are available from the process licensors. In the present study, activated MDEA process was used for acid gas removal. The syngas from scrubber is routed to an absorption column where an amine solution is circulated to absorb H2S and COS. A portion of these absorbed gases is removed from the solution by flashing. [...]
[...] Table Waste water & Power generation potential with sludge in selected cities Waste water generated MLD Mumbai 1800 Delhi 1800 Kolkata 800 Chennai 250 Bangalore Hyderabad Lucknow 400 Pune 180 City Waste water treated MLD Power potential with sludge MW (Source of information: CII-1992) Table Availablity of residues in refineries Refinery Location Capacity Residue Type Quantity MMPTA VR 1.00 VBT 1.50 VR 1.50 * VBT 1.00 VR 1.50 VR 3.25 MMTPA IOCL Koyali 13.70 IOCL Mathura 8.00 IOCL Panipat 6.00 IOCL Barauni 4.20 IOCL Haldia 4.60 BPCL Mumbai 6.00 HPCL Mumbai HPCL Vizag Chennai 6.50 VBT 0.75 CPCL KRL Cochin 7.50 VBT 0.75 BRPL Bongaigoan 2.35 COKE VBT 1.25 MRPL Mangalore RIL Jamnagar 27.00 COKE 2.50 NRL Numaligarh 3.00 * * Coke produced is currently used for calcination VR - Vacuum residue VBT - Visbreaker tar Figure-1: various feed for the gasification Process description: A simple block flow diagram of a gasification facility as it is used for co gasification of asphaltene residue and sewage sludge is shown in Figure 2. [...]
[...] Gasification route not only solves the residue disposal problems faced by the refineries and the sludge disposal problems of the municipal corporations partially, but also helps India to save on valuable foreign exchange. References: K.A Reddy, A saxena et .al ‘co-production of ammonia through refinery residue gasification' A system analysis. Fertilizer industries: not Green Enough, Chemical Industries Digest Annual, January 2001.64 -70 H.Heisel et.al. ‘Cleaning up on Economics' Gasification systems , PEi Dec1999,43-45 J.JMarano'Refinary Technology Profile GASIFICATION And Supporting Technology' Prepared by U.S Department of Energy,NETL,June 2003 B.Ferguson' Gasification: The Future of Power Generation. [...]
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