Rapid growth in population coupled with industrial and technological developments is leading towards the depletion of limited fossil fuel resources of the world. Imperative concerns related to energy and climate change due to CO2 emission requires the large scale substitution of petroleum based fuels. Biodiesel is highly renewable and its use, therefore, produces real reductions in petroleum consumption and CO2 emissions. Biodiesel is highly biodegradable, does not accumulate and pollute soil and waterways if it spilts. Biodiesel defined as the simple monoalkyl esters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oil, animal fat or waste oils is an interesting, environmentally friendly, biodegradable alternative to conventional diesel fuel for combustion in C.I. engine. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of a triglyceride with methanol in presence of catalyst. Vegetable oils edible (soybean oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil) as well as non edible (Karanja and Jatropha) are major sources of biodiesel. There are number of ways for the production of biodiesel such as dilution, micro emulsification, pyrolysis and transesterification. Transesterification is the most commonly used method for biodiesel production.
[...] round bottomed reactor, equipped with thermostat, mechanical stirrer, sampling outlet and condensation systems and sample in a beaker of capacity 500 ml is placed on hot plate with magnetic stirrer. The variables affecting the transesterification reaction such as type of alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol), catalyst concentration ( 0.5 - 1.50 catalyst type (NaOH, KOH, NH2OCH3) and temperature º were optimized. Briefly, the jatropha oil was preheated to the set temperatures on a heating plate before starting the reaction. [...]
[...] The process cracks the glycerol molecule and replaces it with alcohol molecule. Their physicochemical properties such as energy content, cetane number and viscosity are similar to those of petroleum-based diesel fuels. The biodiesel manufacturing process converts oils and fats into chemicals called long chain mono alkyl esters or biodiesel. These chemicals are also referred to as Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters or (FAAE). Glycerine is a sugar and is a co-product of the biodiesel process Transesterification It's the most common way to produce biodiesel by Transesterification, which refers to a catalyzed chemical reaction involving edible/nonedible oil and an alcohol to yield fatty acid alkyl esters (i.e. [...]
[...] In all nine experiments a oil:alcohol molar ratio 6:1 and reaction temperature 60-70ºC were employed.The optimum yield of JOME was achieved with KOH( 0.5 catalyst. Separation of Potassium hydroxide (KOH) from the JOAE was easier than sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a catalyst Effect of type and amount of alcohol on biodiesel yield: The effect of alcohol type on JOAE(Jatropha Oil Alkyl Ester ) production was ascertained in experiments with catalyst KOH at 0.5 of catalyst conc. and four type of alcohol such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol.The optimum yield of 90% was achieved with methanol and KOH as catalyst. [...]
[...] Keywords: - Biodiesel, Jatropha, transesterification INTRODUCTION With each passing day the use of petroleum fuel in various ways is increasing, as a result of which the CO2 level increases. Due to this, the need for the search of alternative source has arose. One of the alternative sources is Biodiesel. Biodiesel is highly renewable source and also produces real reductions in petroleum consumption and CO2 emissions. As Biodiesel is highly biodegradable, renewable resource and practically inexhaustible source of energy, it has become more attractive recently. [...]
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