The UNESCO World Heritage Convention has been established in 1972. It recognizes the way in which people interact with nature, and the fundamental need to preserve the balance between the two. Thus, that convention concerns both the cultural and natural properties, but I will focus in that essay on the natural heritage aspect. Since it is regularly said to be "one of the most important tool for an international cooperation for environmental protection", it appears normal to set out the question why is that system able to be so long-lasting? In fact, it seems to have fixed itself achievable and more precise goals than the others MEA and to have stressed out the necessity of regular updates. Consequently, the World Heritage Convention is always today successful and attractive for both the state parties and the sites concerned. Why does such a need have emerged; how it works; and what are the benefits will be here the key questions.
[...] The listing process begins with the submission of a State Party's inventory of properties in its territories that may be suitable for World Heritage listing, called the “tentative list”. It also provides a basis for the filling of the nomination file which is the 2nd step of the process. The World Heritage Centre offers advice and assistance to the State Party in preparing this file, which needs to be as exhaustive as possible, making sure the necessary documentation and maps are included. [...]
[...] Thus the World Heritage Convention set up the goals and the tools to achieve a preservation of the natural sites inscribed on the list. Nevertheless, the sustainability remains to be a key for the survival and the credibility of the World Heritage. The conservation of natural sites is indeed a long term process: state parties are engaged in an on-going procedure: more than identifying potential sites, they have an active role in protecting and preserving the site. Another crucial aspect is that those countries engaged have an obligation to report regularly to the World Heritage Committee the state of conservation of their World Heritage properties. [...]
[...] Benefits of the World Heritage Convention and its application are indisputable First of all, World Heritage is an undeniable label, a real magnet for both the state and the local site which attracts cooperation, funding and others benefits for the protection of a natural site from a huge variety of stakeholders. The State parties get a prestige to have World Heritage sites, since it is a catalyst to raise awareness and for the heritage preservation. They also obtain an access to the WH Fund and emergency assistance, and get help in setting up management plan, and technical training. [...]
[...] In 1994 the WH Committee launched the Global Strategy for a balanced, representative and credible World Heritage List. The aim is to ensure that the list reflects the world cultural and natural diversity of outstanding universal value. Before, lack of balance in the type of inscribed properties and in the geo areas represented. The IUCN has highlighted that natural and mixed sites cover almost all regions of the world with a relatively balanced distribution. However there are still major gaps such as tropical/temperate grasslands, tundra/polar systems. [...]
[...] such a convention entails a twofold responsibility: first of all, people living near the World Heritage Site have an obligation to protect it for both the local level and the international community. In turn, the international community has a responsibility to support local people and governments in safeguarding it. B The background of WHC: two trends put together It is indisputably linked with the emergence of the idea of conservation of environmental sites just before the World War I. Indeed, WHC is the result of two separate movements: the will to preserve cultural heritage, and the conservation of the nature. [...]
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