Environmental Studies (ES) is an inter-disciplinary area of study incorporating the social and scientific aspects of nature and natural resources. The major aim of Environmental Studies is to project the inter-relationships between living beings-especially human beings- with the surrounding natural resources. Environmental Studies tries to build up a code of conduct towards natural resources. The major objective of Environmental Studies is to make people aware about the growing environmental challenges and individual responsibility. Pollution is any undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, water or land. Pollution can harm our health and threaten the survival or activities of human beings and other living organisms. It is difficult to estimate the desirable and undesirable effects of any activity, which alters the environment. Sometimes short-term gains can cause immeasurable damage in the future, as seen in the ease of nuclear energy, motorcars, air-conditioners and refrigerators, etc. In an age of fast material change, pollution is an unavoidable result. History has shown that societies pollute first and pay later.
[...] Air Pollution: Clean air, which is essential for the survival of all living organisms, is rapidly becoming scarce. At mean sea level air contains oxygen and nitrogen. Other elements present comprise less than one percent of its composition. Air pollution can be due to natural or man-made causes. The former is beyond our control as natural disasters like dust storms, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions throw up large quantities of dust and gases into the atmosphere. Man-made causes, however, should be prevented or controlled as they pose a greater danger by way of toxic emissions from factories, power plants, vehicular traffic, etc. [...]
[...] Noise Pollution: Noise is unwanted sound and has become a part of urban life and industrial centers in this century. Noise pollution may come from loudspeakers, factories, aero planes, moving trains, construction activity or even a radio. Effects of Noise Pollution: Noise level of 80 decibels or more for more than 8 hours a day increases tension and changes in breathing patterns. Noise pollution above 120 decibels can cause many adverse biochemical changes. Cholesterol levels in the blood and white cell counts increase, besides causing hypertension. [...]
[...] National Academy of Sciences (1991), One Earth One Future- Our Changing Global Environment, Affiliated East West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 4. Beyond interdependence-The meshing of the World's Economy and Earth's Ecology (1991), Oxford University Press, New York 5. Eldon D. Enger & Bradley F. Smith (2000), Environmental Science A Study of Interrelationships, McGraw Hill, New Delhi 6. Tyler Miller Jr. G. (1996), Living in the Environment, Wards worth Publishing Company, London 7. Gadgil, Madhav & Guha, Ramachandra (1995), Ecology and Equity the use and abuse of nature in Contemporary India 8. Agarwal, K. [...]
[...] Benzene released from automobile exhaust causes leukemia and also causes chromosomal damage Water Pollution: Like clean air, fresh water is also becoming a scarcity. The limited availability of fresh water and its unequal distribution make water pollution a matter of great concern. Water pollution is generally localized and confined, making it more severe. The pollutants undergo many reactions and can become hazardous of India's fresh water is polluted, including several high latitude lakes. While water pollution is easier to study and manage, its control is highly complex and very costly. [...]
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