Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils (edible or non- edible oil) and animal fats. These natural oils and fats are made up mainly of triglycerides. These triglycerides when rea w striking similarity to petroleum derived diesel and are called "Bio-diesel". As India is deficient in edible oils, non-edible oil may be material of choice for producing bio diesel . For this purpose Jatropha curcas considered as most potential source for it. Bio diesel is produced by transesterification of oil obtains from the plant.
Jatropha Curcas has been identified for India as the most suitable Tree Borne Oilseed (TBO) for production of bio-diesel both in view of the non-edible oil available from it and its presence throughout the country. The capacity of Jatropha Curcas to rehabilitate degraded or dry lands, from which the poor mostly derive their sustenance, by improving land's water retention capacity, makes it additionally suitable for up-gradation of land resources. Presently, in some Indian villages, farmers are extracting oil from Jatropha and after settling and decanting it they are mixing the filtered oil with diesel fuel. Although, so far the farmers have not observed any damage to their machinery, yet this remains to be tested and PCRA is working on it. The fact remains that this oil needs to be converted to bio-diesel through a chemical reaction - trans-esterification. This reaction is relatively simple and does not require any exotic material. IOC (R&D) has been using a laboratory scale plant of 100 kg/day capacity for trans-esterification; designing of larger capacity plants is in the offing. These large plants are useful for centralized production of bio-diesel.
[...] Production Biodiesel production is the process of making biodiesel, an liquid fuel source largely compatible with petroleum based diesel fuel. The following steps can be performed in a small, home based biodiesel processor, or in large industrial facilities. The process is similar in either case. Contents 1. Steps in the process 2. Production methods 3. Oil preparation 4. Reaction 5. Base catalysed Mechanism 6. Process Steps in the process The most common steps are: 1. Preparation: cleaning/heating biolipid (e.g. WVO). [...]
[...] Most of the poisonous compounds common to diesel exhaust are reduced by 75 to 85 percent by using biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel is also easier on the lung because it reduces the emission of the types of particulate matter that cause asthma and other lung disorders by about 47 percent. Additionally biodiesel make less soot. Studies have shown that biodiesel reduces the total amount of particulate matter soot in bus tailpipe exhaust by Soot is the heavy black smoke portion of the petroleum diesel fuel exhaust that consists of 100% carbon. [...]
[...] Biodiesel is basically a TBO (Tree borne Oil) and the best source of producing biodiesel is JATROPHA CURCUS, a plant that grows well mainly in tropical climate. EUROPE and other non tropical countries, therefore , are a buyer for Jatropha seeds, and seedling of Jatropha from our internal market as well from European countries and other parts of the world but none can supply any Jatropha seeds for the commercial production of Biodiesel, only seeds for cultivation purpose are available and mass scale cultivation is going on in the Indian sub continent. [...]
[...] However, being in short supply, initially these improved Jatropha seeds would be supplied only to Agricultural Universities for multiplication and development. After multiplication these would be supplied to different states for further cultivation. It is also working for development of multi-purpose post-harvest technology tools like decorticator and de-huller, which would further improve oil recovery Trans-esterification Process Vegetable Oil Alcohol Catalyst(Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide)Glycerin(Used for medicinal value) Bio-diesel100 gm 12 gm 1 gm 11 gm 95 gm It is the displacement of alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a similar process to hydrolysis. [...]
[...] Four antitumor compounds, including jatropham and jatrophone, are reported from other species of Jatropha (Duke and Ayensu, 1984). Chemistry Per 100 the seed is reported to contain 6.6 g H2O g protein g fat g total carbohydrate g fiber, and 4.5 g ash (Duke and Atchley, 1983). Leaves, which show antileukemic activity, contain a-amyrin, b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol, 7-keto-b-sitosterol, stigmast- 5-ene-3-b, 7-a-diol, and stigmast-5-ene-3 b b-diol (Morton, 1981). Leaves contain isovitexin and vitexin. From the drug saccharose, raffinose, stachyose, glucose, fructose, galactose, protein, and an oil, largely of oleic- and linoleic-acids (List and Horhammer, 1969–1979), curcasin, arachidic-, linoleic-, myristic-, oleic-, palmitic-, and stearic- acids are also reported (Perry, 1980). [...]
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