A large number of patents are granted to China in various fields (green energy, space program, 3G mobiles?) underlining the fact that the country that invented paper, gunpowder and the compass many years ago is making a come-back among the international technology inventors. China has many advantages that help it to develop its innovative capacities in the domains of its natural resources. Among these are its high population density and its rapid urbanization. Moreover, China has adopted several international and internal laws that protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and encourage people to complete research and apply for patents. Given these advantages, one would think it was easy for China to make such great technological progress. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that China still needs important reforms to become the innovator it dreams to be. These reforms must be in IPR, its educational system. However, Chinese judicial courts still lack effectiveness and actually, almost half of the patents granted are foreign patents.
[...] By living abroad, students discover another way of studying (without memorization) and of life, in which the individual is considered as an individual, and not as a member of a group as in Confucian's ideology. They have abroad more incentives to innovate, incentives which are lacking in China. Their returns could also offset the Chinese lack of experience in patent applications, which was restraining China's ambition of becoming a country of innovations; between 1998 and of Chinese firms didn't apply for a single patent. [...]
[...] Bibliography Books - Michael Keane, Created in China, the great new leap forward, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group - Barry Naughton, The Chinese Economy Transitions and Growth, Chapter 15: Technological policy and the knowledge based Economy, MIT Press Articles - Anil K. Gupta and Haiyan Wang, “China as an innovator, not just an imitator Business Week, March 2009: http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/mar2009/gb2009039_914844. htm (May10, 2009) - Claude Imbert (Editorial), “Chine-Afrique : noces d'or”, Le Point April 2009). - “Violation de la propriété intellectuelle : les USA épinglent la Chine”, Dépêche AFP (Mai 2007) : http://www.aujourdhuilachine.com/informations-chine-violation-de-la- propriete-intellectuelle-les-usa-epinglent-la-chine-3002.asp?1=1 (May 10, 2009). - “Washington dépose deux plaintes à l'OMC contre la Chine”, Dépêche AFP [...]
[...] Patents are foreign The graph below[ix] enables us to see that there is an evolution in patent applications: there are ten times as many patents applications in 2007 than in 1997 and most of them are Chinese. But according to Lu Yongxiang[x], many high-tech invention patents are applied for by foreign companies[xi]. Consequently, Chinese firms have to pay high fees for the use of these core technologies, sometimes up to 40% of the total price of the product. Since its accession to the WTO in 2001, China had to pay over US$1 billion to foreign companies in economic compensation because of IPR. [...]
[...] Gupta and Haiyan Wang, “China as an innovator, not just an imitator”, Business Week, March 2009: http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/mar2009/gb2009039_914844.htm (May 10, 2009). Michael Keane, Created in China, The great new leap forward, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group WTO News, successfully concludes negotiations on China's entry” Press releases, Press/243, September 17, 2001: http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres01_e/pr243_e.htm (May 10, 2009). [iii] European Patent Office, Asian Patent Information, Grant Procedure (China): www.epo.org/patents/patent-information/east- asian/helpdesk/china/grant.html (May 10, 2009). million people were engaged in Research and Development and 920,000 of them were scientists or engineers. [...]
[...] By becoming on September the 17th a member of the World Trade Organization China was engaged to “open and liberalize its regime in order to better integrate in the world economy and offer a more predictable environment for trade and foreign investment in accordance with WTO rules”[iii]. Among several commitments, China was expected to adapt existing domestic laws and enact new legislation in order to fully comply with the WTO and the TRIPS Agreements, especially in area of the protection of IPR. [...]
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