The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization which governs the rules of international trade between countries. Today, new markets are appearing thanks to developing countries, who also want to take part in free trade. Therefore, it is important to know how the WTO will integrate these new markets. The already developed countries, the developing countries and the less-developed countries cannot be managed in the same way. WTO has to take into account these elements to try to find the best arrangements for each category of country. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was founded in 1995. The basis of this commercial system was established in 1947 with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). GATT was formed after eight rounds of negotiations. The last round, known as the Uruguay Round, began in 1986 and finished in 1995, with the establishment of the WTO, signed in Marrakech. The aim of the WTO is to promote free trade and stimulate economic growth. Thus, the WTO sets the rules of the world trading system and tries to solve conflicts linked to commercial issues between its state members. The WTO agreements deal with agriculture, textile, banking, clothing, industrial standards, food sanitation regulations, etc. The agreements are set up according to some multilateral trading system principles. Treating people equally is the main idea of this principle (most-favored nation principle).
[...] WTO rules require that laws and regulations designed to advance the interests of the worker, consumer, environmental, health, security, human rights, protection of animals or other non-trade concerns, are applied as "the least restrictive possible for trade." Then, the WTO deregulates and promotes the development of world trade so active rather than regulate. Its principles are oriented in order to facilitate global trade at the expense of efforts to promote local economic development, and policies that advance communities, countries and regions towards greater autonomy. [...]
[...] This shows that the United States seek to impose their own standards as international standards and seeking new markets for their GMO produced by their biotechnology companies. This case illustrates how free trade can take precedence over other considerations such as public health, consumer rights and environmental protection. It also highlights the power of enterprises in the WTO system. The WTO, the instrument of rich and powerful countries The WTO claims that it is run by its members, in other words, by their governments, and that all decisions are taken by them, and not by businesses or the WTO itself. [...]
[...] This failure can be explained by many reasons and especially because of the Washington's intransigence on agriculture, the European claim to add to the agenda a large number of new issues but also the revolt representatives outraged South to be kept away from talks, and the protests outside. Indeed, Americans and Europeans were unable to find a compromise on agriculture. The failure to Americans has resulted in the failure to ratify the treaty on nuclear weapons and not launching a new round of trade negotiations. [...]
[...] The importance of the WTO to open and develop new commercial markets What are these new markets? The new markets are considered as being the markets, where, up until now, it was not usual to do trade. Consequently, we can define new markets as the ones we find in developing countries. With the creation of the Dispute Settlement Body, an international trade law emerged. Therefore, it is the first time an organization makes it possible for small countries to turn against the large ones. [...]
[...] New Fields: Environment The ORD (Body of Settlement of the Disputes) is more and more frequently seized by litigations relating to the environment. Many environmental stakes are treated by specific international agreements, connected or not to the United Nations system, whose fields and ranges can be in contradiction with the agreements of WTO. Environment and Protectionism Environment is becoming a central concern for the World Trade Organization. Multilateral agreements on the environment have commercial consequences which can enter into conflict with the fundamental principles of the organization. [...]
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