9.11 attacks and the U.S. reaction to launch a war on terror in Afghanistan and Iraq, aside with the perpetuating Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the U.S policies toward Egypt triggered an increased popularity of Islamists. In the context of the up coming Anti-terrorist law due to be presented to the People's assembly this month and the pending reform of electoral Law, Egypt might experience a drastic change in its governmental relation to Political Islam movement Muslim Brotherhood. Foreseen anti-terrorist law fostered by the U.S. after 9.11 to replace the controversial emergency law passed in 1981 is likely to ease crackdowns on Muslim brothers when in the meanwhile, last March constitutional amendments switching to a proportional electoral system, will reduce access to parliamentary seats for the movement. This paper aims at analyzing how the US policies and the US perception in Egypt catalyze a breed ground for the rise of political Islam and how it affects the democratization process and the relation between the government and the Muslim brotherhood.
[...] US policies and anti-Americanism in Egypt trigger a breed ground for the rise of Islamists, but immaturity of the Muslim brotherhood on many aspects fails to address Egypt core issues and need to be reconsidered to be able to curb the democratisation process. US policies and anti-Americanism in Egypt trigger a breed ground for the rise of Islamists U.S. policies toward Egypt U.S. policies toward Egypt and the Middle East region is a key issue in the shaping of the Arab world mind. [...]
[...] policy in the Middle East, p467-491 EZZEDINE Fareed, Mubarak in Washington, assessing the US-Egyptian bilateral relationship, MERIP www.merip.com Primary resources RASHWAN Ria'a, Egypt and Islamists: where do we stand, which perspectives?, Interview with the Political counsellor of the Delegation of the European Commission in Cairo, Ahram Center for Strategic and Political Studies, personal notes, July 2007 AL KORACHI Aliaa, Interview with Mohamed Habib, number 2 from the Muslim Brotherhood, Cairo, Al Ahram Hebdo Zogby International / The Arab American Institute 2004 survey Anti Americanism over 6 Arab countries Pew International, Global unease with major world powers, released on 27th June 2007 Websites of interest Muslim Brotherhood official website: www.ikhwanweb.info Government information website: www.sis.gov.eg Al Ahram weekly (English weekly), Ahram Hebdo (French weekly) from Ahram Newspaper which is the leading governmental newspaper in Egypt. [...]
[...] Muslim Brothers already enjoy a large support that is not reflected in the electoral outcomes since there are no free and fair elections in Egypt, but diversifying their electoral base and continuing to show their goodwill to conform to democracy will not harm the democratisation process that is slowly taking place in Egypt. Conclusion U.S. policies in Egypt have been mainly conducted through 50 billion USD aid handed over to Egypt to improve the economic, political, socio cultural situation. The only concern is that the public opinion never perceived the U.S. action in Egypt and in the Middle East as positive since they did not benefited from it neither financially nor politically. [...]
[...] Barry Rubin argues that when America supported the creation of a Palestinian state in the late 90s, terrorism increased drastically in the Middle East which shows that each time America adopts a pro-Arab or pro- Muslim position, Islamists get more violent and vilify America because they want America's policies to fail. ‘Middle Eastern radical opposed the United States not because it has not worked hard enough to bring about a just solution to the Arab- Israeli conflict, but for the opposite reason; because the radicals want to ensure that Washington fails to do so'. Islamists base their recruiting argument by setting the U.S. [...]
[...] would put into question the international relations with Egypt and destabilise the area. Explaining future government policy is essential to have a clear idea about the movement's ideology even though it is not keen in promoting ties with the U.S. or the E.U. publicly. In addition, focusing on international issues and criticism of the government fail to address real core issues, mainly economic ones in a country where 17% of the population lives below the national poverty line. The Muslim Brotherhood defines itself as civil movement with an Islamic reference' which does not give much information about the economy orientation. [...]
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