In his book, "Europe on black shirt: extreme European Right from 1945 to today", Pierre Milza mentioned about the breakthrough of national populism, and its roots in the European political landscape. The main danger comes from its position as an emblem of social protest. Jean Guy Prevost corroborates this assertion by showing the evolution of extreme right parties that pass a brutal rejection of democracy to accept this one. They denounced the hijacking by the traditional political forces of "soft bureaucracy". What is the situation of the extreme right in various European countries?
There are two main types of extremist movements in Europe: on one hand, there are many far-right parties that compete in the elections or the formation of a government. This is the case of Belgium the Vlaams Blok, France with the National Front, and with the Freedom Party of Austria. On the other hand, there is the extra-parliamentary far right, most of small groups and in general much more radical, dispersed in circles, youth groups or fan clubs.
For example, in Germany, there were numerous acts of racist violence on the part of those groups while the far-right parties failed to breakthrough allowing them to sit in parliament. In a country like France, there is certain coexistence between these two tendencies: clubs or extremist movements often provide the service of order at meetings of the National Front party.
Political scientist Jean-Yves Camus gives training in two groups: those with a fascist lineage and by xenophobic populism.
There are currently more than party affiliation of actual fascist represented in a national parliament, with the exception of MSI-Tricolor Flame in Italy, and it has only one senator and represents less than 1% of votes. This is followed by a number of "mixed" movements, that is to say parties that include within them comparable to currents of fascism, and that also cultivate a "modern" ideology. The French National Front and the Flemish Vlaams Blok are fairly representative of this duality.
This is the case of the List Pim Fortuyn in Holland, which, although xenophobic, has no relation to the Dutch pro-Nazi movement and also xenophobic parties of Denmark and Norway, the Danish People's Party and the Progress Party. The Swiss People's Party is also an example of a populist xenophobic fascist without inheritance. Blocher's party is the only party that was not created as such, but followed a movement to the far right from an agrarian party. Another major feature: the new leaders of the European extreme right are trying to embody the synthesis between tradition and modernity.
Tags: European countries, extremist movements, Freedom Party of Austria, National Front party, Jean-Yves Camus, fascist movement
[...] It must be said that many topics in this European campaign can help the extreme nationalist right to find an electoral market: national concern about the significant enlargement process of the EU, questions about the identity of the Europe revived by the issue of Turkish membership in the EU, the reluctance or hostilities to a federalist approach this in the draft European Constitution . Structural campaign themes of the extreme right as p. Perrineau Three structural factors contribute to enlighten the electoral success of extreme nationalist right in Europe. The first is the discomfort associated with the economic transition which saw swathes of industrial capitalism disappear to make way for a post- industrial capitalism. On the ruins of an old dying world, all kinds of anxieties and longings flourished. [...]
[...] They then gather behind the singers of the "closed society" that are the leaders of the modern extreme right. Jean-Marie Le Pen, Jorg Haider, Pia Kjaeresgaard Umberto Bossi and others continue to denounce the euromondialisme, cosmopolitanism, the stateless capitalism and foreign "invaders." Finally, the third and final explanatory factor: the democratic malaise. Most European democracies are affected by a profound crisis of political representation. Abstention weak partisan and union involvement, the very poor image of politicians are all signs of this malaise. [...]
[...] Marginal, especially useful in a backup coalition, they have not aged well, says Camus, and were more easily taken up by younger and radical elements. Haider has recovered in 1986 the Freedom Party, a moribund party led by a former SS. Other characters of this type are also on the rise in some European countries: Blocher in Switzerland and Hagen in Norway. They fifties, the same profile of businessmen with a strong personal image and have never belonged to the extreme hard right. [...]
[...] What is the situation of the extreme right in the different European countries and what face does this? The many faces of the extreme right, and its new leaders There are two main types of extremist movements in Europe: on the one hand, there are many right-wing formations organized parties that compete in elections or the formation of a government. This is the case of Belgium with the Vlaams Blok, France with the National Front, and Austria with the FPÖ (see below). [...]
[...] In the last election, with of the vote in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate, MSI did not get any seat in parliamentary elections in May 2001 in Sicily agreements withdrawal with the House of Freedoms have allowed Berlusconi's coalition to grab all 61 regional offices played in June 2001. The Northern League, headed by Umberto Bossi was founded in 1991 The League denounces the corruption and bureaucracy of the Italian State, argues that "the North pays for the South" and calls for a federal structure. The League also maintains a xenophobic and populist rhetoric. Its development dates from 1987, when she won 20% of votes in parliamentary elections in Lombardy. [...]
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