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Essays in international law

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10 Feb 2024

Advisory Opinion on The Wall - International Court of Justice - Article 51 of the United Nations Charter and the right of self-defense

Essay - 3 pages - International law

In its Advisory Opinion on The Wall, the International Court of Justice declared that Article 51 of the United Nations Charter "recognizes the existence of an inherent right of self-defense in the case of armed attack by one State against another State", thereby implying that the right of...

04 Feb 2024

How and why is International Law Binding on States?

Essay - 3 pages - International law

While the legal nature of the subject itself has been often discussed and debated, it is generally considered that international law has legal value, notably because of its binding effect. Indeed, international law is binding on states, with obligations based on both moral and formal reasons....

07 Dec 2023

What Consequences did the Treaty of Trianon have on Hungary?

Essay - 4 pages - International law

After 4 years of war between 1914 and 1918, the Allies marked their victory by signing different treaties, like the Treaty of Trianon. Indeed, this treaty was signed on the fourth of June 1920 in Versailles by, on the one hand, most of the Allies (the UK, France, the USA, Italy, the Kingdom of...

01 Nov 2023

Why do European courts refuse to enforce U.S. punitive damages?

Essay - 6 pages - International law

In terms of civil liability in Continental Europe, the principle is to compensate only for the damage. Civil liability is not punitive. The purpose is only to put the victim back in the situation she knew before the operative event. If the behavior deserves a sanction, it is a matter of criminal...

14 Jan 2023

Fragmentation and inconsistency in international investment law

Essay - 5 pages - International law

It is a fallacy to think of international investment law as a general, coherent regime. The rules of law are splintered and fragmented, both in terms of their formal source and in terms of their application of particular disputes. What is more, there are no mechanisms in international investment...

20 Nov 2022

The Jurisdictional Requirement of the Existence of a Legal Dispute

Essay - 2 pages - International law

In its 1974 judgment, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) resolved solely to admit a case before its framework on the very basis of the genuine existence of a dispute. This provision is not unique to the ICJ: the article 25(1) of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes...

17 Nov 2022

Non-Appearance by a State Compatible with the Adversarial Principle: an Adversarial Procedure Reinstated by the Court

Essay - 5 pages - International law

Since the occupation of Crimea in February 2014, the Russian Federation has been violating the prohibition on the use of force under international law in Article 2(4) of the UN Charter with respect to Ukraine. Moreover, it was already an armed attack within the meaning of Article 51 of the...

09 Oct 2022

History of the Common Law System on the English Legal System

Essay - 11 pages - International law

As a direct result of the colonization by the British, many of its states naturally acquired this common law system, being the English law in globo, maintaining its primary principles, procedures, actors and modes of proof. As a consequence of this adoption and utilization of English law, and the...

22 Jun 2022

Administrative law in the United States

Essay - 4 pages - International law

Explaining the concept of administrative law can cause complications to many people. Therefore, before going further in this work, we will define the administrative law in advance for a better understanding. Administrative law is the set of rules that define the rights and obligations of an...

06 Jun 2022

Essay on international agreements : sales of Covid-19 vaccines

Essay - 5 pages - International law

This situation has changed the world. Experiencing such situations require a certain level of implication and commitment on the international scale. Meaning, all the countries were henceforth concerned about this pandemic. Fever, dry cough, and exhaustion are the most prevalent Covid-19 symptoms....

01 Mar 2022

How could international law support a transition to renewable sources of energy?

Essay - 4 pages - International law

Climate change is an international issue. Indeed, no matter how much greenhouse gases emissions decrease in Europe, if the world does not act collectively climate change and its consequences will continue. But climate change is not only an international topic, it intersects with many...

01 Sep 2021
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Should the death sentence be implemented globally?

Essay - 5 pages - International law

From the beginning of the world, there have always been multiple ways or theories of punishment. After researches and studies conducted by the experts of the domain, it was revealed that the death sentence takes its roots from the legal and political systems of many countries of the world....

16 Jun 2021
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The risks of democracies

Essay - 3 pages - International law

In order to determine whether there is a violation of due process, it is necessary to ask several cumulative and conditional questions. If so, is a fundamental right involved? And finally, depending on the answer to this question, it is necessary to apply the standards of the review to provide an...

02 Feb 2021
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State sovereignty in international public law

Essay - 5 pages - International law

Jean Bodin (1530-1596) considered that the concept of sovereignty is an absolute concept. Sovereignty is a key concept when it comes to dealing with the state and its place in the international arena. It is, indeed, a concept that has been fostered to characterize the intrinsic power of states:...

19 Sep 2020
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Estoppel: questions and case study

Essay - 5 pages - International law

The doctrine of the promissory estoppel is a remedy afforded to a party receiving a promise/representation (the promisee) enabling them to rely on that promise/representation made by the other party (the promisor) to recover damages due to the either beneficial or prejudicial and detrimental...

07 May 2020
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The International Criminal Court and the Peace Process in Northern Uganda

Essay - 9 pages - International law

The Juba Peace Talks that started in July 2006 in Southern Sudan seem to be one of the best chances to bring an end to the 20-year-long raging conflict in the region of Northern Uganda. Known for its unbelievable atrocities, the war has by now caused the displacement of more than 1.7 million...

04 Jun 2019
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Alternative Dispute Resolution

Essay - 4 pages - International law

It is increasingly common for commercial agreements to include clauses providing for the use of a form of alternative dispute resolution, should a dispute arise. Consider critically the approach of the courts, and the guidance available from bodies such as UNCITRAL and the ICC, in discussing how...

01 Jan 2012
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Persecution, famine, and exodus: Ireland in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

Essay - 3 pages - International law

For centuries, Ireland and Britain have had closely intertwined histories and relations. Ireland, as we know it today, has been influenced tremendously by its relations with Britain. It is known as a place of religious and cultural tension, much of which dates back to the eighteenth and...

03 Feb 2011
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The conditions of admissibility of reservations in the Vienna Convention

Essay - 5 pages - International law

Paragraph 4 of Article 20 shows that the Vienna Convention contains a rigid principle of unanimous acceptance of reservations. It reads "The acceptance of a reservation by another contracting State of the reserving State a party to the treaty in relation to that other State if the treaty is...

03 Feb 2011
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The legal effect of unilateral acts of States and international organizations

Essay - 7 pages - International law

The International Law Commission is responsible for the codification and progressive development of international laws. It had its forty eighth session in 1996 and the issues of Unilateral Acts and their legal effects have figured prominently in their discussions. There is an uncertainty...

29 Sep 2010
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The legal system of common law in Anglo-Saxon

Essay - 4 pages - International law

A contract is the most obvious manifestation of law in everyday life. In a legal point of view, not all agreements are seen as enforceable contracts. Indeed, each legal system introduced some rules in order to determine which agreement is enforceable; this corpus of rules is called "the badge of...

29 Sep 2010
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Post-Conflict Justice in Rwanda

Essay - 5 pages - International law

Between April and July 1994, one of the largest atrocities of the 20th century occurred: the genocide of 800 000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus during the civil war in Rwanda. The country was inhabited by around 8 million people. This emphasizes the massive aspect of these slaughters. When the RPF...

29 Sep 2010
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Comparative Criminal Law: comparison between the French and the American system by studying Brenton Butler case

Essay - 2 pages - International law

In this document, we present the Brenton Butler case, where Mary Ann Stephens, who was a holiday, is shot in the head in front of her husband. Later, Brenton Butler, a 15 year old Black citizen, was arrested just because he was in a street near the place of crime and it was confirmed that he was...

29 Sep 2010
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United Kingdom Immigration Laws, asylum laws and anti terrorism Laws

Essay - 5 pages - International law

In recent years, public attention has been focused on asylum seekers, but their numbers have fallen sharply. They are now less than 40,000 a year of whom only a quarter are given permission to stay in Britain, yet only one in five is actually removed. Meanwhile, other forms of immigration have...

29 Sep 2010
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International commercial arbitration - published: 29/09/2010

Essay - 4 pages - International law

In the event of resolution of disputes related to international commercial agreements, the International commercial arbitration is one of several forms of dispute resolution. The use of arbitration has increased along with the growth of international trade and commerce and the accompanying...

29 Sep 2010
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The accession of States to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)

Essay - 5 pages - International law

Today, various international instruments allow the protection and respect of human rights. Thus, the International Bill of Rights is the basis composed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the two subsequent International Covenants of 1966. The United Nations, which is...

21 Jan 2009
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Consider the extent to which international law is law, or 'really law' or 'law properly so-called' with reference to legal and other theorists

Essay - 6 pages - International law

Charlotte Ku and Paul F. Diehl noticed that at first sight, ‘International' and ‘Law' sound contradictory: “how can one imagine a structured and developed legal system functioning in a political environment that is diffused, disparated, unregulated and conventionally described as...

20 Jan 2009
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The concept of non-resident on international laws

Essay - 9 pages - International law

The tax situation of each person is defined in relation to his domicile tax. According to Article 1 of the law of 29 December 1976 applicable for the first time to the income for the year 1977 and codified in section 4A of the GTC, "people who have their domicile tax in France are liable for...

15 Jan 2009
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International human rights law

Essay - 4 pages - International law

Today, various international instruments allow for the protection and respect of human rights. Thus, the International Bill of Rights is the basis composed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the two subsequent International Covenants of 1966. The United Nations, which is...

15 Jan 2009
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Essay on the Rome Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations

Essay - 13 pages - International law

The Rome Convention on the Law applicable to contractual obligations “applies to contractual obligations in any situation involving a choice between the laws of different countries.” The scope of the Convention is therefore clear; its aim is to regulate contractual relations between...