The outcome of the integration of computer and telecommunications technology is today called as Information Technology which is popularly known as Info Tech. Businesses use IT in many different ways. Some IT applications automate a variety of basic business activities, from production control systems in manufacturing to word processing and financial calculations in office work. Other applications involve databases and information retrieval that support management, customer service, logistics, product design, marketing, and competitive analysis.Through IT, companies can combine computing and communications to facilitate ordering and product tracking. IT functions often are implemented as mechanization of older, manual processes; ideally, however, they involve fundamental redesign of processes.
Several explanations have been put forward for the productivity paradox. One explanation involves measurement difficulties. Much of the expected effect of IT would occur in the service industries, where productivity is always difficult to measure. IT may lead to improvements in services that do not readily show up as productivity improvements.
[...] Because business-to-business e-commerce is built on the history of pre-Internet electronic transactions, many companies have substantial relevant expertise already in place. As a result, business-to-business commerce has expanded rapidly. Business-to-business e-commerce enables businesses to offer their customers additional services and the means to improve communication. By improving communication, business-to-business e-commerce makes it possible for businesses to outsource more easily and to streamline and boost supply chain processes. It also allows businesses to eliminate some intermediary organizations between customers and suppliers but has also given rise to new classes of business intermediaries, such as on-line auctions. [...]
[...] The study also found that 54 percent of those who are not on-line believe the Internet is a dangerous thing percent say they do not think they are missing anything by staying away from the Internet percent say the Internet is too expensive, and 36 percent express concern that the on-line world is confusing and hard to negotiate. DOC has found similar reasons that explain why some people do not have Internet access (U.S. DOC 2000b). Among surveyed households with annual incomes less than $15,000, one-third of respondents without Internet access ( 32.6 percent) cited cost as the reason and slightly more than one-quarter cited "don't want it" ( 26.6 percent) as the reason. [...]
[...] Working Group on Electronic Commerce 2000): FirstGov (http://www.firstgov.gov/) is a single on-line portal that connects users to all government sites and has one of the largest collections of Web pages in the world. The site allows users to search all 27 million Federal agency Web pages at once. The Patent and Trademark Office's X-Search system (http://www.uspto.gov) enables anyone to use an Internet browser to search and retrieve, free of charge, more than 2.6 million pending, registered, abandoned, canceled, or expired trademark records. [...]
[...] Indicators of Participation in the Digital Economy In the 1980s, households that had PCs were on the cutting edge of IT use; since the mid-1990s, however, access to the Internet has become the primary indicator of a household's IT use. Because the Internet opens information resources to people in ways that unconnected PCs do not, this section emphasizes Internet access more than computer ownership. In the future, many people may achieve Internet access through interactive televisions, personal digital assistants, and wireless telephones. [...]
[...] As a result, electronic government at the local level is applied in a variety of ways and with a variety of impacts. The Indianapolis website (http://www.IndyGov.org/) is a leading example of municipal government on the Web (Fountain 2001b). Innovative applications include geographical information systems (GIS) services that identify a user's local, state, and national representatives based on the user's address. A wealth of information is available on the Indianapolis website, including maps and descriptions of local recreational facilities. The website also integrates agency and departmental functions into a single, citywide portal. Contra Costa [...]
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