Change is inevitable in the life of an organization. In today's business world, most of the organizations are facing a dynamic and changing business environment. They should either change or die, there is no third alternative. Organizations that learn and cope with change will thrive and flourish and others who fail to do so will be wiped out. The major forces which make the changes not only desirable but inevitable are technological, economic, political, social, legal, international and labor market environments. Recent surveys of some major organizations around the world have shown that all successful organizations are continuously interacting with the environment and making changes in the structural design or philosophy or policies or strategies as the need be.
According to BARNEY AND GRIFFIN, the primary reason cited for organizational problems is the failure by managers to properly anticipate or respond to forces for change.
Thus in a dynamic society surrounding today's organizations, the issue is how managers cope with the inevitable barrage of changes that confront them daily in attempting to keep their organizations viable and current. Otherwise the organizations will find it difficult or impossible to survive.
[...] For example, if the management wants to change the promotion policy, it must decide as to what type of employees will be affected by it, whether to change the policy for all the departments at once or to try it on a few selected departments first. vi. Strategy for the implementation of the plan. In this stage, the management must decide on the ‘when', ‘where' and ‘how' of the plan. This includes the right time of putting the plan to work, how the plan will be communicated to the employees in order to have the least resistance and how the implementation will be monitored. [...]
[...] Therefore, a manager should never treat the employees in isolation but he must understand that the individual level change will have repercussions beyond the individual GROUP LEVEL CHANGE Management must consider group factors while implementing any change, because most of the organizational changes have their major effects at the group level. The groups in the organization can be formal groups or informal groups. Formal groups can always resist change for example; the trade unions can very strongly resist the changes proposed by the management. [...]
[...] HUMAN REACTION TO CHANGE There is a very close relationship between change and human attitudes. Every individual reacts to the change according to their individual attitude. Human reaction to change does not depend upon logic. Generally, depends upon how a change will affect ones needs and satisfaction in the organization. Attitudes are very important in determining the resistance to change. The reaction to change any occur in any of the following forms, ACCEPTANCE Acceptance of the change depends on the perception of the employees towards the change. [...]
[...] Proactive change is initiated by the management on its own to increase organizational effectiveness. FORCES FOR CHANGE There are a number of factors both internal and external which affect organizational functioning. Any change in these factors necessitates changes in an organization. The more important factors are as follows: EXTERNAL FORCES Every organization exists in some context; no organization is an island in itself. Each must continually interact with other organizations and individuals- the consumers, suppliers, unions, shareholders, government and many more. [...]
[...] In organization where pay is tied to productivity individuals usually resists change as they fear that they will not be able to perform new task effectively, thus causing a decline in productivity and a decrease in their income. iii. Workers may fear that they will be demoted if they do not acquire the skills required for the new jobs. iv. Workers resist the changes which lead to high standards which in turn may reduce the opportunities for bonus or incentive pay. [...]
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