Research on kidney stones demonstrates that this painful condition has been part of human physiology since the time of the Egyptians (Cause and…, 1998). Although kidney stones are one of the most painful disorders that can be experienced by the patient, they are also one of the most common. Researchers note that 10 percent of the American population will at one time in their lives experience kidney stones (Cause and…, 1998). While men are more prone to the condition than women, in most cases, kidney stones pass without the need for intervention from the physician. As such, while kidney stones are painful they are in most cases benign.Examining the basic definition of kidney stones that has been offered in the current research, scholars have noted that, “A kidney stone develops from crystals that separate from urine and build up on the inner surfaces of the kidney. Normally, urine contains chemicals that prevent or inhibit the crystals from forming.
[...] Further, researchers have noted that once cystine stones have formed, they often do not respond to traditional therapies that can be used on other types of kidney stones—such as shock wavy lithotripsy. As such, when cystine stones are present, minimally invasive procedures, such as ureteroscopy, must be used. Although this procedure causes minimal discomfort for the patient, research does show that in most cases, patients with cystine stones will have a recurrence of the stones throughout their lifetime. As such, individuals with cystinuria will have to undergo repeated procedures to reduce the presence of stones (Joly, Rieu, Méjean, Gagnadoux, & Daudon, 1999). [...]
[...] When the issues of hypercalciuria and cystinuria are put aside, it is clear that the formation of kidney stones can be notably reduced though the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits. Proper diet ensures that not too much calcium or oxalate are present in the urinary tract system. Exercise helps the body to function more efficiency. Finally, hydration helps the body function more efficiency and dilutes the urine, preventing kidney stone formation. While it is not reasonable to argue that all individuals will be able to avoid the pitfalls of kidney stone formation, it is evident that notable steps can be taken to avoid this painful condition. [...]
[...] Through a careful consideration of what has been written on the subject, the specific factors that can contribute to the formation of kidney stones will be effectively elucidated. Synthesizing this information, it will be possible to provide some recommendations about what steps can be taken to reduce the formation of kidney stones. Review of the Literature Kidney Stones and Gender As noted above, men are more susceptible to the development of kidney stones. However, research on the development of kidney stones in both men and women demonstrates that there are different factors that can lead to kidney stone formation in men and women. [...]
[...] According to these authors, women with a BMI (body mass index) of >30 have a two-fold increase in risk for developing kidney stones when compared with men of the same weight. The condition is exacerbated when women gain in excess of 35 pounds after the age of 21. Thus, while obesity is a risk factor for the development of kidney stones, the risk is greater when applied to women. Guttman (2005) notes similar findings and argues that the formation of kidney stones in the case of excess weight may be precipitated by the process of insulin resistance. [...]
[...] However, research does show that obese women have a greater chance of developing kidney stones than obese men. For this reason, it is recommended that women monitor their weight and adopt a healthy lifestyle that allows them to maintain weight across the life span. While obesity should be monitored in men—as a means of general health consideration—when it comes to the issue of kidney stone formation, obesity is clearly a key issue for women. With respect to the issue of diet, it is clear that all adults should consider the adoption of a health diet that balances protein intake with intake of fruits and vegetables. [...]
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