Thermodynamics, labor, energy, heat and entropy
Thermodynamics is the part of physics that studies the phenomena related to labor, energy, heat and entropy, and the laws that govern the energy conversion processes. Although we all have a sense of what is energy, it is very difficult to make a precise definition for it. In fact physics accepts energy as primitive concept without definition, that is, only characterizing it.
It is well known that a substance which consists of a set of molecules called particles. The properties of the substance depend, of course, the behavior of these particles.
From a macroscopic view of the system for the study, which does not require knowledge of the behavior of individual particles, developed the so-called classical thermodynamics. It allows to address in an easy and direct way to solving our problems. A more elaborate approach is based on average behavior of large groups of particles, is called statistical thermodynamics.
The thermodynamics determines the direction in which various physical and chemical processes will occur. It also allows to determine the relationships between the various properties of a substance. However it does not work with the microstructure of the substance model and is not able to provide details of it, but since some data are known, by the method of classical thermodynamics, other properties may be determined.
[...] However, is the observation of hot and cold elements that we come to the concept of temperature. Therefore the zeroth law was postulated as follows: if the bodies A and B are in thermal equilibrium with the body then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other, ie the temperature of such systems is the same. The first law of thermodynamics It is the energy conservation law applied to thermal processes. In it we see the equivalence between work and heat. This principle can be stated from the internal energy concept. [...]
[...] The internal energy is defined as the sum of the kinetic energy and interaction of their constituents. This principle states, then the conservation of energy. Second Law of Thermodynamics States that the amount of useful work that you can get from the energy of the universe is constantly decreasing. If you have a large amount of energy in one place, a high intensity of it, you have a high temperature here and a low temperature there, then you can get work this situation. The lower the temperature difference, the less work you can get. [...]
[...] Even if we never enter it, it becomes dusty and musty. How difficult to maintain houses, machines and our own bodies in perfect working order: how easy to let them deteriorate. In fact, all we need to do is to do nothing, and everything deteriorates, collapses, breaks down, wears out, all by itself - and that's all that the second law is all about. In nature . In the processes that occur in nature, there is a decrease of Util Energy. [...]
[...] This is expected in the 2nd law of thermodynamics: In the Universe (Isolated System), the amount of useful energy never increases. Third Law of Thermodynamics We can say that there is a function (internal energy), variations during a transformation depends only two states, the initial and the final. In a closed system the indication of this variation is given as: ΔU = Q - W where Q is the amount of heat received by the system and W the work done. [...]
[...] The term was first used in a thermodynamic Lord Kelvin's publication in 1849. The first thermodynamics text was written in 1859 by William Rankine, a professor at the University of Glasgow in Scotland. Great progress of thermodynamics occurred in the early 1900s, when they were purged erroneous theories, becoming a mature science. processes Where one or more properties of the system varies, it is said that a state change has occurred. The path through successive states through which passes the system is defined as a process. [...]
using our reader.