Within this dissertation, the manufacturing and fabrication of a prototype of a crane with a pneumatic lift is explained with the help of detailed diagrams. The project is held to covert each and every drop of theoretical knowledge into a crude conceptual and practical work. This introductory chapter will outline and discuss the aim, methodology and general overview of the research, design and constructions of the crane with pneumatic lift. A lift crane having enhanced lifting capability includes a self-installing counterweight system which utilizes actuators forming parts of a counter weight assembly for raising the rear of the crane. A pair of slid able counterweight beams are slid ably supported within main frame members forming part of the upper works of the crane and have their outer ends attached to the counterweight. Fluid pressure operated actuators within the frame members extend and retract the beam in order to move the counterweight rearward with respect to the crane. The upper works also includes spaced-apart, parallel frame members each with a pair of spaced-apart vertical side plates with integral flange sections extending upwardly. The flanged section includes mounting locations for hoist machinery which utilize pins for easily mounting and dismounting the equipment. Drip pans including drain plugs are provided and located.
The aim of this project is to learn the importance of planning and tacking things slowly and to investigate possible solutions before hand to overcome obstacles as they appear. We have learned a lot about the implementation of theoretical concept in the world around us. We feel that we have learnt a lot about mechanical engineering in general, and construction techniques. This project includes selection of frame, loading upon frame, analysis of various loads during loading and unloading, control mechanism, hook selection, motor, details and other mechanical operations for the safe operation of the crane.
[...] The first is that the crane must be able to lift a load of a specified weight and the second is that the crane must remain stable and not topple over when the load is lifted and moved to another location Lifting capacity Cranes illustrate the use of one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage. The lever. A balance crane contains a horizontal beam (the lever) pivoted about a point called the fulcrum. The principle of the lever allows a heavy load attached to the shorter end of the beam to be lifted by a smaller force applied in the opposite direction to the longer end of the beam. [...]
[...] General layout Parts of a crane with pneumatic lift Analysis of loading and unloading of objects Motor details Hook selection 1.4 Overview For many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the harnessed natural power. The first 'mechanical' power was provided by steam engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, with many remaining in use well into the late 20th century. [...]
[...] CHAPTER 7 ANALYSIS OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE CRANE WITH PNEUMATIC LIFT 7.1 Dimensional analysis of the parts Area of the base - 64.5 cm * 45.8 cm Area of crane base - 25.0 cm * 25.0 cm Total height of the crane from base - 65.0 cm (with out the fluid pressure) Total height of the crane from base - 85.2 cm (with maximum fluid pressure fluid pressure) Total height at which a load can be lifted - 20.0 cm Total height of crane base from ground - 38.7 cm Height of piston - 26.4 cm Diameter of cylinder - 3.82 cm Height of crane from crane base - 25.1 cm Actual height of crane from crane base- 19.4 cm Length of crane arm - 32.1 cm Actual length of crane arm - 27.0 cm Width of the crane arm - 2.0 cm Thickness of the crane arm - 1.5 cm Length of the rope - 63.0 cm Length of pipe connecting the cylinder to solenoid valve - 24.5 cm Length of pipe connecting solenoid valve to pressure pump - 50.8 cm 1.2 Pressure pump Pressure range - 0.0 - 10.6 kg/cm*cm Length of connecting pipe of pressure pump - 87.4 cm Operating pressure range - 0.0 - 1.2 kg/cm*cm 1.3 Analysis of jib Width of the jib - 2.0 cm Depth of jib - 1.4 cm Length of the jib - 32.0 cm Moment of inertia - / 12 (along horizontal axis ) = 1.4 * 1.4 * 1.4 = 5.488 /12 = 0.45733 Analysis of the lift Diameter of the piston - 3.82 cm Radius of the piston - 1.91 cm Area of the piston - 3.14 * radius* radius = 3.14 * 1.91 * 1.91 = 11.46 cm*cm Maximum lift of the crane - 20.0 cm Observation table PRESSURE (kg/cm*cm) LIFTED LOAD (kgf) 0.8 9.17 0.9 10.31 1.0 11.46 1.2 13.75 1.3 14.90 1.5 17.19 PRESSURE LOAD GRAPH 1.5 ANALYSIS OF HOOK Stress in curved bars (Winkler-Bach Theory) In general practice machine members and structures subjected to bending are not straight bar so for that analysis we use winkle- bach theory. [...]
[...] When connected with the ohmmeter: one way there will be no deflection and when connected the other way round there will be a large deflection of a pointer. When this occurs the anode lead is connected to the negative of test lead and cathode to the positive test lead of the ohmmeter External resistor Unless an LED is of the ‘constant-current type' (incorporating an integrated circuit regulator—see Unit 20.4 use on a 2 to 18 V d.c. or a. c. [...]
[...] However, in a rough terrain crane, the engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in the upper, like the crawler crane Crawler crane A crawler is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of tracks that provide for the stability and mobility of the crane. Crawler cranes have both advantages and disadvantages depending on their intended use. The main advantage of a crawler is that they can move on site and perform lifts with very little set-up, as the crane is stable on its tracks with no outriggers. [...]
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