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26 May 2009

Analysis and fabrication of the model of a crane with pneumatic lift

Tutorials/exercises - 71 pages - Physics

Within this dissertation, the manufacturing and fabrication of a prototype of a crane with a pneumatic lift is explained with the help of detailed diagrams. The project is held to covert each and every drop of theoretical knowledge into a crude conceptual and practical work. This introductory...

22 May 2009

A presentation on the hydrodynamic modeling of circulating fluidized bed

Essay - 42 pages - Physics

Fluidization is an operation through which fine granular solids are transformed into a fluid like state through contact with a gas or liquid. An increase in the gas velocity through a granular solid brings about changes in the mode of gas solid contact in many ways. Among the several flow regimes...

22 May 2009

Phthalic anhydride

Thesis - 30 pages - Physics

Phthalic Anhydride is an important aromatic di-carboxylic acid anhydride. It is an ortho-derivative of phthalic acid. The raw materials are air and o-xylene. The o-xylene feed, which may be considered pure and at 0.75 atm, is pumped to 3 atm and then vaporized in a fired heater. Air, which may be...

22 May 2009

Hydrodynamic modeling of circulating fluidized bed

Tutorials/exercises - 89 pages - Physics

Fluidization is an operation through which fine granular solids are transformed into a fluid like state through contact with a gas or liquid. Under the fluidized state the gravitational pull on granular solid particles is offset by the fluid drag on them, thus the particles remain in a semi...

22 May 2009

Evaluation and application of vat dye on cotton fabrics using hydros with glucose or sucrose as a reducing agent

Thesis - 13 pages - Physics

Although the synthetic fibers have dominated the textile market, consumer has still preference towards cotton. Today cotton can be manufactured but the natural merits obtained in cotton cultivated in different areas of the country cannot be underestimated. A number of research studies are...

22 May 2009

Dyeing with sulfur dyes

Thesis - 10 pages - Physics

Sulfur dyes are mainly used for dyeing cellulosic fibers for corduroy articles, work wears and men's outer wear (woven and knitted goods) and lcisurewcar. Polyester/cotton blend fabric is another important area of application of sulfur dyes. Silk, paper and leather are also dyed to a limited...

22 May 2009

Mathematical modeling for axial voidage distribution in CFB

Tutorials/exercises - 6 pages - Physics

Kwauk proposed that the characteristic fine particle distribution in fast fluidization could not be accounted for by the one-dimensional analysis on accelerative motion of particulate fluidization, and presented a physical model for a gas-solid fast fluidization system. The average solid...

22 May 2009

Prediction of annual down flow layer thickness in circulating fluidized beds

Thesis - 5 pages - Physics

he solids distribution in circulating fluidized beds (CFB) has been extensively studied because of its importance in design of CFB boilers and reactors. In circulating fluidized bed, normally, the upper region consists of a dilute core surrounded by a relatively dense annulus, with solids down...

22 May 2009

Axial hydrodynamics

Thesis - 7 pages - Physics

Many studies have appeared in the literature dealing axial solids distribution along CFB risers (e.g. Yerushalmi et al, 1976: Kwauk et al, 1986: Arena et al 1991, Bai et al 1992). It is most often represented as either a plot of the radially averaged solids suspension density or voidage...

22 May 2009

The process of reactive distillation

Tutorials/exercises - 35 pages - Physics

Reactive distillation is the combination of separation and reaction ina single vessel. Today Reactive Distillation is discussed as a part of the broader area of reaction and separation, which comprises of many combination of chemical reaction with separation methods including...

17 May 2009

Concentration/evaporation of the juices

Thesis - 10 pages - Physics

The fruit juice processing industry is one of the world's major agro-based businesses. Orange juice dominates in juice trade worldwide. Juice is a liquid that is naturally contained in vegetable or fruit tissue. Juice may be supplied in concentrate form. Generally, concentrates have a noticeably...

12 May 2009

Co-generation (18 slides)

Essay - 5 pages - Physics

In this presentation you will learn a bit about Co-generation. It is the concept of producing two forms of energy from one fuel. Co-generation (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. It is a...

25 Apr 2009

Determination of outer sphere and total Chloride content, and formula of unknown Co complex by ion exchange chromatography and Fajan's method

Tutorials/exercises - 5 pages - Physics

The objective of this lab is to determine the formula of an unknown Co (III) complex through determination of outer sphere chloride content and hence total chloride content in the complex. Co (III) tends to form numerous coordination complexes, of which the most common ones are those with ammine...

25 Apr 2009

The UV-vis spectra of conjugated dyes are interpreted using the multielectron particle-in-a-box model

Tutorials/exercises - 8 pages - Physics

The purpose of this lab is to observe how a real system may be approximated using the simple quantum mechanical model of a one-dimensional particle-in-a-box. Due to the arrangement of the electrons in the conjugated dyes, some electrons are free to move along the molecule's...

25 Apr 2009

Synthesis and analysis of ammonium vanadates and determination of water and vanadium content in ammonium decavanadate using manganometry

Tutorials/exercises - 8 pages - Physics

The objective of this experiment is to synthesize ammonium decavanadate (NH4)6V10O28.6H2O and ammonium trivanadate NH4V3O8 and subsequently determine the water and vanadium content in ammonium decavanadate. Vanadium in the +5 oxidation state forms numerous species in aqueous solution and a tight...

25 Apr 2009

Determination of Avogadro's number by spreading a monolayer of stearic acid on a known surface area

Thesis - 5 pages - Physics

Avogadro's law states that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules. Avogadro's constant(?)is the number of molecules in one mole of any substance, and it is known to be 6.02 x 1023. This laboratory exercise attempts to experimentally...

25 Apr 2009

Determining enthalpies of reaction by calorimetry

Tutorials/exercises - 9 pages - Physics

The purpose of this lab is to determine the specific heat of the calorimeter, the enthalpy changes of 4 different reactions, namely Heat of Solution of NaOH(s), Heat of Solution of KNO3(s), the Heat of Neutralization of HCl(aq) and NaOH(aq), and the Heat of Reaction of NaOH(s) and...

25 Apr 2009

Using UV-vis spectroscopy to determine the kinetics of bromophenol blue

Thesis - 5 pages - Physics

The purpose of this lab is to determine the rate constant and order of reaction for an acid-base indicator, bromophenol blue. Bromophenol blue (BP) displays a color change from yellow to purple in the pH range of 3 to 4.5. In strong alkaline solutions, the dye becomes unstable and decomposes due...

15 Apr 2009

VSAT: Satellite communications

Thesis - 29 pages - Physics

This report provides a review and assessment of satellite technologies for providing broadband data communications using Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) network systems. In this context, “broadband” means that the application requires a data transfer rate greater than 100 kbps and...

08 Apr 2009

Slurry transport

Thesis - 8 pages - Physics

In Slurry Transport, the solids are first ground to fine grain size and made into slurry with a liquid medium. The slurry is then pumped through the pipes to a desired destination. Even though the concept of slurry pipelining was known at the turn of the century, it was only in 1957 that it...

08 Apr 2009

Azeotropic distillation

Thesis - 6 pages - Physics

Distillation is the most widely used separation technique in the chemical and petroleum industry. However not all liquid mixtures are amenable to ordinary fractional distillation. When the components of the system have low relative volatilities (1.00 <

08 Apr 2009

The process of heat transfer

Thesis - 7 pages - Physics

Direct contact heat transfer is a fundamental process by which heat transfer occurs in nature. It is used for the improvement of cooling or heating processes, in terms of characteristic time, compactness and energy costs. Direct contact heat transfer is potentially more efficient than...

08 Apr 2009

Applications of neural networks in chemical engineering

Thesis - 7 pages - Physics

Neural networks, which are simplified models of the biological nervous system, is a massively parallel distributed processing system made up of highly interconnected neural computing elements that have the ability to learn and there by require knowledge and make it available for use. Neural...

08 Apr 2009

Three phase fluidization

Thesis - 5 pages - Physics

Gas-Liquid-Solid fluidized beds have emerged in recent years as one of the most promising devices for three phase operation. This operation generates considerable, intimate contact among the gas, liquid and solid particles in these systems. It provides substantial advantages for applications in...

08 Apr 2009

Micro reactors and process intensification

Thesis - 5 pages - Physics

In recent decades there has been a significant increase in the energy efficiency of the process industry by optimization of unit operations. In many cases the limits of what can be done on a unit-operation scale have been reached. To develop chemical production routes and products that consumes...

08 Apr 2009

Biodiesel: A cleaner source of energy

Thesis - 7 pages - Physics

A majority of the countries in the world are importers of petroleum and its products. The fossil fuels are being consumed at a rate, which is a million times faster than their rate of formation. The prices of petroleum products are mounting at an alarming pace due to the unmatched contribution to...

08 Apr 2009

Pneumatic valves

Thesis - 6 pages - Physics

Today the performance requirements of process plants are becoming increasingly difficult to satisfy. In fact, without process control it is difficult to operate most modern processes safely and profitably. To understand the process dynamics and its behavior Apex has developed compact setups....

08 Apr 2009

Bio-diesel: An Eco-friendly alternative

Thesis - 20 pages - Physics

Today, an attempt is made to find alternative, nonrenewable energy sources to replace conventional fossil fuels. Currently national energy demands are exponentially increasing as we are progressing into digital age and the population is increasing. One such method that is currently being refined...

08 Apr 2009

Compact heat exchangers

Tutorials/exercises - 5 pages - Physics

A heat exchanger that has a large surface area per unit volume is called a compact heat exchanger. The ratio of the heat transfer surface area to that of a heat exchanger to its volume is called area density ‘?'. A heat exchanger with ?>700m2/m3 is classified as being compact. Compact heat...

08 Apr 2009

Evaporative pertraction

Thesis - 8 pages - Physics

Evaporative Pertraction is membrane processes that has fascinating advantages over conventional process for the separation of volatile solutes from aqueous solutions. This novel athermal Membrane separation process retains flavors and fragrances better than thermal techniques. It promises to play...

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