The efforts outlined above are aimed at the optimization of forest production on a sustainable basis. The rationalization of forest harvesting techniques and improvement of wood supply logistics can be implemented relatively quickly (i.e., over a short time span), hence wood delivery is a crucial issue in optimization of the entire wood supply chain. Wood delivery in the context of this article refers to the chain of operations related to the extraction and transport of different categories of timber and by-products of forest harvesting, including wood chips and forest residue materials that are used for energy.
[...] Harvesting and Extraction Harvesting systems are of primary importance in wood delivery for the following reasons: 1. Harvesting methods determine the mode of subsequent wood delivery systems used There is increasing emphasis on the use of combined harvesting and extraction systems to minimize soil disturbance and damage, e.g., the use of combined harvesting and extraction machine 3. Methods that are aimed at improving the cost- effectiveness of the wood supply chain, e.g., the delivery of forest residue (energy bundles) and wood chips are currently being redesigned to utilize the standard transportation vehicles used for wood delivery. [...]
[...] The current operational practices aimed at enhancing the service ability and minimizing the overall maintenance cost of wood delivery route networks include the improvement of design standards for new roads and upgrading of weaker links in the delivery route networks; use of road-friendly truck axle conﬁgurations and suspension systems (e.g., air suspension), and the use of trucks with central tire inﬂation (CTI) systems which adjust tire pressures to suit actual environmental conditions. Machine Telemetrics and On-Board Electronics Machine telemetrics refer to on-board electronic systems that are used for machine and harvesting process control, including measurement and optimization of stem cutting, communication equipment (voice and data), and navigation and route optimization functions. [...]
[...] Monitoring of Performance of Wood Delivery Systems Monitoring of components or whole wood delivery systems is essential for achieving optimum performance outcomes. The monitoring processes should include work analyses related to productivity in off-road and on-road transportation, and site impact assessments, with a view to identifying factors that may be improved through machine and process development or the enhancement of operator competence. In-Process Assessments These are systematic checks that are required during an operation. Since the site characteristics may be highly variable and obstacles may be obscured, machine operators are expected to make decisions on an ongoing basis. [...]
[...] Ideally, the different options including road, rail, and waterways should be considered with respect to wood and by- product cost, and the production requirements and timetables at the mills or other delivery points. However, road transport can access remote harvesting sites, and also link the harvest sites to the rail systems and waterways, if such secondary transportation is required. Roads and Road Transport Regulations Well-planned and well-managed roads are prerequisites for efﬁcient wood delivery. Road classiﬁcation determines the most appropriate haulage routes, hence, the economics of transportation. [...]
[...] Time–motion study allows for objective and systematic examination of all factors which govern operational efﬁciency of a speciﬁed activity in order to effect improvement. With respect to forest machines, this may lead to improvements in harvesting procedures and planning for the necessary access locations during establishment of forest stands. Post-Process Assessments These are systematic checks that are required after an operation is completed. They are mainly geared to reverting a site to its original condition and to preventing secondary environmental degradation. [...]
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee